MGMT 2130 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Trait Theory, Decision Theory, Externals

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Process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals
Leaders focus on vision, mission, goals, and objectives, while managers focus on productivity
and efficiency
Leaders take a long term perspective, while managers take a short one
Leaders are more concerned with ends, while managers are concerned with means.
Posits that effective leaders possess similar characteristics
Relatively stable characteristics, such as abilities, psychological motives, and
patterns of behavior
Leaders have drive, the desire to lead, honesty/integrity, self-confidence,
emotional stability, cognitive ability and knowledge of the business
Trait theory
The degree to which a leader structures the roles of followers by setting goals,
giving directions, setting deadlines, and assigning tasks
(1) Initiating structure (job centred leadership/concern for production)
The extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable, and supportive and shows
concern for employees
(2) Considerate leader behavior (employee-centred leadership/concern for people)
Two basic leader behaviors emerged as central to successful leadership
Leadership traits
1 as low, 9 as high
9,9 = team management
Care about production, but not about people
9,1 = authority-compliance
Leaders care about having a friendly and enjoyable work environment and that's it
1,9 = country club
Little concern for people or production and who does the bare minimum necessary to
keep his or her job
1,1 = impoverished leader
Moderate amount of concern for both people and production
5,5 =middle-of-the-road
Blake /Mouton leadership grid "high-high approach"
*best leadership style depends on situation
1. Fiedler's contingency approach
2. House's path-goal theory
3. Vroom and Yetton's normative decision model
Individual's leadership style is difficult to change
Leaders must be matched to the right leadership situation
Leaders are effective when the work groups they lead perform well
Leaders are generally unable to change their style and they are more effective
when the style fits the situation
Success of a leader depends on the degree to which he or she is able to influence
the group behavior of group members
1. Leadership style: Least preferred co-worker
Fiedler's contingency approach
Situational approaches to leadership
Chapter 14 - Leadership
July 24, 2016
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Leadership depends on the situation
Leadership styles are tied to leaders' underlying needs and personalities
Describe LPC well - then person has relationship-oriented style
Describe LPC bad - task-oriented leadership style
Describe LPC moderate - flexible leadership style
Least preferred -(LPC) - choose a person least worked with well
1. Leadership style: Least preferred co-worker
Leaders will be more effective if style matches to situation
Degree to which a particular situation either allows or denies a leader the
chance to influence the behavior of group members
How well followers respect, trust, and like their leaders
Leader-member relations
Degree to which the requirements of a subordinate's task are
clearly specified
Task structure
Degree to which leaders are able to hire, fire, reward, and
punish workers
Position power
Three factors determine the favourability of a situation
Situational favourableness
2. situational favourableness
In moderately favoured situations, relationship-oriented leaders were better
Task-oriented leaders are better leaders in highly favourable and unfavourable
People with moderate LPC tend to do fairly well in all situations because they can
3. matching leadership styles to situations
Leaders can adapt their leadership styles to the situation at hand
A leadership theory that states that leaders can increase subordinate satisfaction and
performance by clarifying and clearing the paths of goal and by increasing the number
and kinds of rewards available for goal attainment
Leader's behavior must be a source of immediate or future satisfaction for
Leaders' behaviors must complement and not duplicate the characteristic of their
followers' work environment
Two conditions if path clearing and path clarification are to increase followers'
Path-goal theory: Adapting Leader Behavior
4 leadership styles
A leadership style in which the leader lets employees know precisely what is
expected of them, gives them specific guidelines for performing tasks,
schedules work, sets standards for performance, and makes sure that
people follow standard rules and regulations
1. Directive leadership
A leadership style in which the leader is friendly and approachable, shows
concern for employees and their welfare, treats them as equals, and creates
a friendly climate
2. supportive leadership
3. participative leadership
1. Leadership styles
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