NURS 2215 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Confidence Interval, Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis

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Class 4: Guided Questions for Readings
Stamler, Yiu, & Dosani (2015): Chapter 10 - Research (pp. 184 – 201)
1. Describe what evidence informed practice is.
Evidence-based Nursing is defines as the conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current
best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients.
Evidence-based practice means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available
external clinical evidence from systematic research.
2. List and describe the process of evidence-informed nursing.
1) Define- Clearly define the question or problem
2) Search- efficiently search for research evidence
3) Appraise- Critically and efficiently appraise the research sources
4) Synthesize- Interpret information and form recommendations for practice
5) Adapt- adapt the information to the local context
6) Implement- Decide whether (and plan how) to implement the adapted evidence into practice or
7) Evaluate- evaluate the effectiveness of implementation efforts.
3. What is a systematic review?
With or without statistical summary, which is called meta-analysis.
A systemic review is a summary of research evidence that relates to a specific question. It could
involve causation, diagnosis, or prognosis but more frequently involves effectiveness of an
A systematic review is a research study that collects and looks at multiple studies. Researchers
use methods that are determined before they begin to frame one or more questions, then they find
and analyze the studies that relate to that question.
4. What is a randomized controlled trail?
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial;[2] RCT) is a type of scientific (often
medical) experiment, where the people being studied are randomly allocated one or other of the
different treatments under study
5. What is an observational study?
An observational study draws inferences from a sample to a population where the independent
variable is not under the control of the researcher because of ethical concerns or logistical
6. What is an intervention study?
Intervention studies are studies in which the participants undergo some kind of intervention in order
to evaluate its impact. An intervention could include a medical or surgical intervention, a new drug,
or an intervention to change lifestyle. Because they are the most methodologically rigorous design,
experiments are the default choice for providing evidence for best practice in patient management,
so this discussion will begin with them. The experimental researcher has control over the
intervention, its timing, and dose or intensity.
7. What is a confidence interval and why is this important to know?
Confidence intervals are a range of values with a specified probability (usually 95%) of including
the true effect, which can never be known absolutely.
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