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PSYC 1001 (1)
Chapter 6

PSYC 1001 Key Terms & Concepts Chapters 6, 7 and 11

14 Pages

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PSYC 1001
Dr.Mc Grath

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Psychology 1001: Intro to Psych I Chapters 6, 7 & 8 Cydney Kane learning: a chance in an organism's behaviour or thought as a result of experience habituation: process of responding less strongly to repeated stimuli over time conditioning: forming associations among stimuli classical conditioning: form of learning in which animals come to respond to a previously neutral stimulus that had been paired with another stimulus that elicits a natural response unconditioned stimulus: a stimulus that elicits a natural, automatic response without prior conditioning unconditioned response: automatic response to an unconditioned stimulus conditioned response: a response previously associated with a non-neutral stimulus that comes to be alerted by a neutral stimulus conditioned stimulus: a previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after conditioning has taken place acquisition: the learning phase in which a conditioned response is established through the repeated pairing of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus extinction: gradual reduction, eventual elimination of the conditioned response after the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus spontaneous recovery: sudden re-emergence of an extinct conditioned response after a delay following an extinction procedure renewal effect: sudden re-emergence of a conditioned response following extinction when an animal is returned to the environment in which the conditioned response was acquired stimulus generalization: process by which conditioned stimuli that are similar but not identical to the original conditioned stimulus elicits a conditioned response stimulus discrimination: process by which organisms display a less pronounced conditioned response to stimuli that differ from the original conditioned stimulus higher-order conditioning: developing a conditioned response to a new conditioned stimulus by virtue of its association with a previously conditioned stimulus occasion setters: higher-order conditioned stimuli that refer to a setting in which the originally conditioned stimulus occurs everyday applications of classical conditioning: • advertising • acquisition of fears and phobias • drug tolerance • acquisition of fetishes • disgust reactions latent inhibition: difficulty in establishing classical conditioning to an already familiar stimulus conditioned compensatory response: a conditioned response that is the opposite of, and serves to compensate for, the unconditioned response operant conditioning: learning controlled by the consequences of an organism's behaviour operants: behaviours produced by the animal to receive a reward law of effect: if a response, in the presence of a stimulus is followed by a satisfying reward, the bond between stimulus and response will be strengthened, making that response more likely to occur in the presence of that stimulus in the future insight: grasping the underlying nature of a problem Skinner box: small animal chamber constructed by Skinner to allow sustained periods of conditioning to be administered and behaviours to be recorded unsupervised, printed a cumulative record of animal's responses reinforcement: outcome or consequence of a behaviour that strengthens the probability of the behaviour positive reinforcement: the presentation of a pleasant stimulus following a desired behaviour to increase its probability negative reinforcement: the removal of an unpleasant stimulus following a desired behaviour to increase its probability punishment: outcome or consequence of a behaviour that weakens the probability of the behaviour positive punishment: presentation of an unpleasant stimulus following an undesired behaviour to decrease its probability negative punishment: withdrawal of a pleasant stimulus following an undesired behaviour to decrease its probability disadvantages of punishment: • does not tell organism what to do, only what not to do • often creates anxiety which can interfere with future learning • may encourage subversive behaviour • may provide a model for aggressive behaviour discriminative stimulus (S ): stimulus that signals the presence of a reinforcement extinction burst: increase in intensity of an undesired behaviour that in the past, was reinforced schedule reinforcement: pattern of reinforcing a behaviour (continuous: reinforcement for every instance of a behaviour, resulting in quicker learning but also quicker extinction, or partial: occasional reinforcement of a behaviour, resulting in slower extinction) four basic schedules of reinforcement: • fixed ratio schedule • fixed interval schedule • variable ratio schedule (most effective) • variable interval schedule everyday applications of operant conditioning: • animal training • overcoming procrastination • superstitious behaviours • therapeutic uses shaping by successive approximations: conditioning a target behaviour by progressively reinforcing behaviours that come closer and closer to the target behaviour chaining: linking a number of interrelated behaviours to form a longer series superstitious behaviour: actions linked to reinforcement by sheer coincidence secondary reinforcers: neutral objects that become associated with primary reinforcers primary reinforcers: an item or outcome that naturally increases the target behaviour token economy: systems using reinforcers to increase desirable behaviours and decrease undesirable behaviours two-process theory: states that we need both classical and operant behaviour to explain the persistence of anxiety disorders cognitive conditioning: a situation in which the animal's interpretation of the situation affects conditioning latent learning: learning that isn't directly observable cognitive map: mental representation and spatial understanding of how a physical space is organized observational learning: learning by watching others four lines of evidence used to determine whether a link between media violence and real-world aggression exists: • correlational studies • longitudinal studies (track individual's behaviours over time) • laboratory studies (exposure manipulated) • field studies (examining the relation between naturally occurring events and aggression in the real world) mirror neurons: cells in the prefrontal cortex that become activated by specific motions when an animal both performs and observes that action conditioned taste aversions: the developed avoidance of certain foods due to classical conditioning equipotentiality: the claim that we can classically conditioned all conditioned stimuli equally well to all unconditioned stimuli. This theory has been contradicted by many experiments preparedness: evolutionary predisposition to learn some pairings of feared stimuli over others due to their survival value instinctive drift: the tendency for animals to return to innate, evolutionarily selected behaviours following repeated reinforcement discovery learning: giving students experimental materials and asking them to figure out the scientific principles on their own, shown to be less effective than direct instruction learning styles: an individual's preferred or optimal method of acquiring new information memory: retention of information over time memory illusion: a false, but subjectively compelling memory observer memory: a memory in which we see ourselves as an outside observer would field memory: a memory in which we see the world through our own visual field span: amount of information a memory system can retain duration: amount of time a memory system can retain information sensory memory: brief storage of perceptual information before it is passed to long-term memory iconic memory: visual sensory memory eidetic imagery: "photographic memory", the ability to hold a visual image in the mind as to be able to describe it near perfectly echoic memory: auditory sensory memory short-term memory: memory system that retains information for limited durations, approximately 20 seconds long, associated with our working memory which stores the information we are currently thinking about or processing decay: fading of information from memory over time interference: loss of information from memory due to competition from additional information retroactive interference: interference with retention of old information due to acquisition of new information proactive interference: interference with acquisition of new information due to previous learning of information the Magic Number: the span of short-term memory, seven plus or minus two pieces of information according to George Miller chunking: organizing material into meaningful groupings, allowing us to extend the span of our short-term memories rehearsal: repeating information to extend the duration of retention in short-term memory and promote the likelihood of transfer to long-term memory maintenance rehearsal: repeating stimuli in their original form to retain them in short- term memory elaborate rehearsal: linking stimuli to each other in a meaningful way to improve retention of information in short-term memory levels of processing: depth of transforming information, which influences how well we remember it long-term memory: relatively enduring retention of memory stored regarding our facts, experiences, and skills permastore: type of long-term memory that appears to be permanent primacy effect: tendency to remember stimuli at the beginning of a list especially well, likely because they have already progressed to long-term memory recency effect: tendency to remember stimuli at the end of a list especially well, likely because they are still lingering in short-term memory von Restorff effect: tendency to remember stimuli that are distinctive from other stimuli semantic memory: our knowledge of facts about the world episodic memory: our recollection of events in our own lives explicit memory: memories we call intentionally and of which we have conscious awareness (semantic and episodic memory) implicit memory: memories we don't deliberately recall or reflect on consciously (procedural memory, priming, conditioning and habituation) procedural memory: memory for how to do things, including motor skills and habits priming: our ability to identify a stimulus more easily after having encountered similar stimuli encoding: process of getting information into our memories mnemonic: a learning aid, strategy or device that enhances recall. Can be applied to a wide variety of material, and require some pre-existing knowledge pegword method: using a rhyming word to help us remember the word associated with it method of loci: imagining a familiar path and all of the objects you might encounter on that path keyword method: using a familiar word to recall a word with which we are unfamiliar storage: process of keeping information in our memories schema: organized knowledge structure or mental model that we've stored in memory retrieval: reactivation or reconstruction of experiences from our memory stores retrieval cues: hints that make it easier for us to recall information recall: generating previously remembered information recognition: selecting previously remembered information from an array of options relearning: reacquiring previously learned knowledge that was largely forgotten over time tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: the experience of being aware that we know something but being unable to access it encoding specificity: phenomenon o
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