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Chapter 1

ANAT 100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Anal Canal, Bronchus, Parathyroid Gland


Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
ANAT 100
Professor
Leslie W Mac Kenzie
Chapter
1

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FOUNDATIONS OF ANATOMY INTRO (MODULE 1)
LEARNING OUTCOMES
- Locating and naming important body cavities and their links with each other
- Terms describing body sections, regions, planes, and body structure locations
- Traits of epithelium and connective tissue and identifying them microscopically
GROSS ANATOMY (Macroscopic): focuses on visible parts of the body like organs with different
approaches:
- Comparative Anatomy: compares the anatomy of different species
- Developmental: examines the changes from conception to maturity
- Embryology: examines developmental changes prior to birth
- Regional: examines structures in their specific locations
- Surface: examines body markings in relation to the skin (doctors knowing where things
are through your skin like joints)
- Systemic: studying systems in the body (urinary system: kidneys, bladder, etc.)
- Pathologic: examines changes caused by disease
- Radiographic: examines internal relationships through medical imaging (MRI)
- Surgical: examines changes before and after surgery
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS
- Organization: all organisms have a complex structure and order in their bodies
- Metabolism: chemical reactions that breakdown nutrients and takes out waste through
contracting and relaxing the muscles
- Growth/Development: develop from environment and grow along with brain which
becomes more complex
- Responsiveness: responding to the environment (hand on a hot pan)
- Adaptation: adapting to the environment (dark skin from constant sun)
- Regulation: the control of homeostasis (body temp rises = more blood circulation)
- Reproduction: sex cells (gametes) that are able to produce new life
THE IMPORTANCE OF ANATOMY (1)
4 areas of anatomy: Histology (micro), Gross anatomy (macro), Neuroanatomy, Embryology
Anatomy to cut apart Greek to gai koledge of positio, relatios, structure ad
function
Fun facts
- The smallest bone and muscle is found in your middle ear
- The average human brain weighs 3 pounds (similar to liver)
- The stomach of a human adult can expand 4 times its size (2L)
- The human digestive tract measures over 29 feet long
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- Your heart is roughly the same size as your fist
- A human is able to live with one lung (with limits of physical activity)
Unity of Form and Function
- If a structure has a proper form, a proper function follows
- When this form is disrupted, dysfunction would usually occur (form + function)
ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY AND ANATOMICAL NOMENCLATURE (2)
Levels of Bodily Structures
Chemical Level: A molecule is a group of atoms bonded together
Cellular Level: Cells are the smallest living structure (formed by atoms and molecules)
Tissue Level: Similar cells that are special to specific functions
Organ Level: Organs are 2 or more tissues that work together for a more complex function
Organ System Level: Related organs that work together for a common function
Organismal Level: All body systems function in a single living human
Body Divisions
AXIAL -> Forms the main vertical axis of the body including the head, neck and trunk
APPENDICULAR -> Include the limbs or appendages that attach to the axis
- The Axial region holds the most important organs and functions that are needed for
human survival. However, the appendicular region gives us more physical capabilities.
Macroscopic Organ Systems
INTEGUMENTARY: Skin, hair, nails, sense receptors, sweat glands
SKELETAL SYSTEM: Bones, joints
MUSCULAR SYSTEM: Muscles
NERVOUS SYSTEM: Brain, spinal cord, nerves
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: Pituitary gland, hypothalamus, thyroid gland, parathyroid, thymus,
adrenals, pancreas
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine,
rectum, anal canal, accessory digestive organs
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM: Blood, heart, blood vessels
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM: Lymph nodes, lymph vessels, thymus, spleen, tonsils
URINARY SYSTEM: Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: Gonads, genital ducts, accessory organs, genitalia
Body Cavities distinct spaces that enclose organ systems (protection)
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Language of Anatomy
Anatomical Position:
- Standing upright
- Feet parallel and on floor
- Head level and looking forward
- Arms at side of body
- Palms facing forward and thumbing point away from body
Directioal Ters iclude…
- Superior (above/over)
- Inferior (below/uner)
- Anterior (in front of/front)
- Posterior (after/behind/following/toward)
- Medial (mid-line, away from the side)
- Lateral (toward the side/away from mid-line)
- Proximal (near/closer to the origin/up to head)
- Distal (away from/farther from origin/away from head)
- Superficial (closer to surface of body, top of skin)
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