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Chapter 2

ANAT 100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Metacarpal Bones, Acromion, Carpal Bones


Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
ANAT 100
Professor
Leslie W Mac Kenzie
Chapter
2

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FOUNDATIONS OF ANATOMY (MODULE 2)
SKELETAL SYSTEM
SKELETAL SYSTEM INTRO (1)
Facts
- Composed of bones, cartilages, joints and ligaments
- About 20% of body mass
- There are 206 named bones
- Divided into 2 divisions: axial and appendicular skeletons
Functions of Skeletal System
1. Support: the large leg bones are like pillars for support and the ribs hold the thoracic
wall (skeleton creates a framework that holds in the soft organs)
2. Protection: the rib cage encloses the thoracic cavity, the skull and vertebrae protects
and surrounds the soft tissue of the nervous system
3. Blood Cell Formation: hematopoiesis happens inside the bone marrow
4. Storage: fat is stored in the interior of the bones and also holds many minerals
5. Movement: the skeletal muscles use bones like levers to produce movement (walking)
BONE AND CARTILAGE (2)
- Each bone is composed of 2 layers
Outer layer: hard and strong compacted bone
Inner layer: very spongy bone, blood cells are created in the medullary cavity
Types of Bones
1. Flat Bones (bones of the skull)
2. Irregular Bones (vertebrae)
3. Long Bones: elongated cylindrical shaft (femur)
4. Short Bones (ankle and wrist)
Structure of Long Bones
1. Epiphysis: the larger part of the end of a bone and the attachment for tendons and
ligaments (strengthens joints)
2. Metaphysis: area between the diaphysis (skinny, long part) and epiphysis (right before
the enlarged epiphysis)
3. Diaphysis: elongated cylindrical shaft (long skinny part of bone)
Additional Features of Long Bones
1. Articular Cartilage
- Layer that covers epiphysis
- Reduces the friction in joints and absorbs the shock in moveable joints
2. Periosteum
- A tough sheath of dense irregular connective tissue covering the surface of the bone
3. Medullary cavity
- Blood cell production is found in this inner cavity
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AXIAL SKELETON (3)
- Consists of the skull, vertebral column, ribs and sternum
Bones of Skull
- There are a total of 22 bones but only the basics will be discussed (2 sets)
1. Cranial Bones
- 8 bones to protect the brain but only 7 will be covered
- These bones form a roof (cranial vault) and a floor (cranial base) the encloses the brain
inside the cranial cavity
i. Frontal (1 bone): forms the forehead and the top of the orbits/eye sockets (Cranial
Vault)
ii. Parietal (2 bones): forms the superior and lateral surfaes of skull thats o top of the
ears and behind the forehead (Cranial Vault)
iii. Temporal (2 bones): forms the lateral and inferior walls
of the skull found under parietal right on top of ears ->
iv. Occipital (1 bone): forms the posterior wall and base of
the skull (foramen magnum big hole, occipital
condyles)
v. “pheoid  oe: ko as the kestoe of the skull
Cranial Vault: Sutures (attachments between the flat bones of skull)
1. Coronal: connection between frontal and parietal bones
2. Sagittal: connection between parietal bones
3. Lambdoid: connection between occipital and parietal bones
4. Squamous: connection between temporal and parietal bones
Cranial Base
- A fossa is a depression in a bone which the cranial base/floor has 3 of:
Anterior cranial fossa
Middle cranial fossa
Posterior cranial fossa
2. Facial Bones
- There are 14 bones for the face but we will focus on 7
i. Maxillary (2 bones): upper jaw bones around nose
ii. Nasal (2 bones): forms the bridge of nose and connects with the frontal bone
iii. Zygomatic (2 bones): forms the cheekbones that features the temporal process
iv. Mandible (1 bone): forms the lower jaw
Parts of Mandible
- Body: the sides of the basic structure
- Ramus: the top of the sides towards the ears
- Angle: the angle that makes a good jaw line
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Vertebral Column (Spine)
- The adult spinal cord has 26 bones (24 vertebrae, 1 sacrum, 1 coccyx)
- Approximately 70 cm long
5 Divisions of the Vertebral Column (Spine)
1. Cervical (7 vertebrae): top of spine
2. Thoracic (12): close to the middle of spine
3. Lumbar (5): close to end of spine
4. Sacrum (5 fused vertebrae): the tail of the spine that looks like a stingray
5. Coccyx (4 fused vertebrae): the very tip of tail of spine
Vertebrae Structure
1. Body (anterior)
2. Vertebral Arch (posterior)
- Spinous process
- Transverse process
3. Vertebral Foramen (canal)
- Houses the spinal cord
Atypical Vertebrae
- Not all vertebrae are the same (regional differences)
C1 (Atlas)
- There are 2 parts of C1 that are important for the attachment with
other bones
- Anterior Arch: attaches to the dens (found on C2)
- Lateral Masses: attaches to the occipital condyles of occipital bone
C2 (Axis)
- Has a dens that rests inside of the anterior arch of C1
Movement of C1 & C2
- The skull rests on top of lateral masses of C1 using the occipital condyles (allows the
es oeet of the head to our
- The des of C attahes to the aterior arh of C allos the o oeet of the
head to move side to side)
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