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Chapter All

ANAT100 Chapter All: ANAT100 Course Notes


Department
Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
ANAT 100
Professor
Leslie W Mac Kenzie
Chapter
All

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ANAT100
Module 1
Cells / Tissues / Organs
-The simplest level of organization within the human body is the chemical level
-Large molecules join in specific ways to form cells
-
-Groups of similar cells with a common function form tissues
-The four types of tissues in the human body are:
-Epithelial tissue (covers exposed surfaces and lines the body cavities)
-Connective tissue (protects, supports and interconnects body parts)
-Muscle tissue (produces movement)
-Nervous tissue (conducts impulses for internal communications)
-Organs contain two or more tissue types that work together to perform specific an complex
functions
-In humans we commonly denote 11 organ systems:
-Skeletal, provides support and protection, site of hemopoiesis, calcium and phosphorus
stores
-Integumentary, provides protections, regulates body temp, site of the cutaneous receptors,
prevents water loss and synthesizes vitamin D
-Muscular, produces body movements, generates heat when muscles contract
-Endocrine, consists of glands and cell clusters that secrete hormones
-Nervous, regulatory system that controls body movements and responds to stimuli
-Cardiovascular, contains the heart, blood and blood vessels
-Respiratory, responsible for exchange of gases between the blood and the air
-Lymphatic, transports and filters lymph and initiates an immune response when needed
-Digestive, mechanically and chemically digests food
-Urinary, filters blood and removes waste from the blood
-Reproductive, produces male/female sex cells and hormones
Language of Anatomy
-The anatomic position has the individual stand upright, feet parallel and flat, the head is level
and the eyes look forward, the arms are at either side and the palms face forwards and the
thumbs point out
-Anatomists refer to slices in the body that are called sections (actual cut or slice) or planes
(imaginary flat surface going through the body)
-The coronal plane, or the frontal plane, is the vertical plane that divides the body into
anterior and posterior parts
-The transverse plane, also called the cross-sectional or horizontal plane, cuts
perpendicularly along the long axis of the body or organ; this cuts the body or organ into
the superior and inferior parts
-The midsagittal plane, or median plane, extends through the body or organ vertically and
divides the structure into left and right halves; planes to the left or right of the midsagittal
plane are called sagittal planes

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-The axial region includes the head, neck and trunk and forms the main vertical axis of the
body
-The limbs and appendages attach to the body’s axis and make up the appendicular region
-The posterior aspect has two enclosed cavities
-The cranial cavity is formed by the cranium and houses the brain
-A vertebral canal, or spinal canal, is formed by the the individual bones of the vertebral
column and contains the spinal cord
-The ventral cavity eventually becomes partitioned into a superior thoracic cavity and an
inferior abdominopelvic cavity with the formation of the thoracic diaphragm, a muscular
partition that develops between the two cavities
-The thoracic cavity
-Contains a median space called the mediastinum which contains the heart, the thymus,
esophagus, trachea and major blood vessels
-The heart is further enclosed in a membrane called the pericardium
-The pericardial cavity is the potential space between the parietal and visceral pericardia;
it contains serous fluid
-The right and left sides of the thoracic cavity contain the lungs which are lined by a two
layered serous membrane called the pleura
-The narrow, moist, potential space between the visceral and parietal layers is called the
pleural cavity and it is the location of the lubricating serous fluid
-The abdominopelvic cavity consists of an abdominal cavity which is superior to an imaginary
line drawn between the superior aspects of the hip bone; the pelvic cavity is inferior to this
line
-The abdominal cavity contains most of the organs from the digestive system and the
urinary system
-The abdomen is also usually divided into four quadrants, they use these areas to locate
aches, pains, injuries or other abnormalities; right upper, left upper, right lower and left lower
(the RUQ, LUQ, RLQ and LLQ respectively)
Epithelial Tissue
-This tissue covers or lines every body surface and body cavity, thus it forms the external and
internal lining of many organs
-It also constitutes the majority of glands
-An epithelium is composed of one or more layers of closely packed cells between two
compartments having different components
-There is little to no extracellular matrix between epithelial cells - as well, no blood vessels
penetrate the epithelium
-There are several common characteristics of epithelial tissue:
-Cellularity: epithelial tissue is composed almost entirely of cells
-Polarity: every epithelium has an apical surface (free or top surface) which is either
exposed to the external environment of some internal body space; it also has a basal
surface to which is connected to the underlying connective tissue

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-Attachment: at the basal surface of an epithelium, the epithelial layer is bound to a thin
basement membrane
-Avascularity: all epithelial tissues lack blood vessels
-Innervation: epithelia are richly innervated to detect changes in the environment at a
particular body or organ surface region
-High regeneration capacity: because epithelial cells have an apical surface that is exposed
to the environment, they are frequently damaged or lost by abrasion; however, damaged or
lost cells are generally replaced as fast as they are lost because the cells have a high
regeneration capacity
-There are several functions of epithelial tissue:
-Physical protection: protection of both exposed and internal surfaces from dehydration,
abrasion and destruction by physical, chemical or biological agents
-Selective permeability: all epithelial cells act as gatekeepers that regulate the movement of
materials into and out of certain regions of the body
-Secretion: some epithelial cells, called exocrine glands, are specialized to produce
secretions
-Sensation: epithelial tissue contain some nerve endings to detect changes in external
environment environment at their surface
-Because epithelial tissues are located at all free surfaces in the body, they exhibit distinct
structural specializations
-An epithelium rests on a layer of connective tissue and adheres firmly to it which secures the
epithelium in place and prevents it from tearing
-Epithelial cells are strongly bound together by specialized connections in the plasma
membrane of their lateral surfaces called intercellular junctions
-When classifying epithelial tissue, the first part of the name refers to the number of cell layers
and the second part describes the shape of the cells at the apical surface of the epithelium
-Simple epithelium is one cell layer thick and all the cells are in contact with the basement
membrane; these are found in areas where stress is minimal and where filtration/
absorption/secretion are the primary function (lining of air sacs, intestines and blood
vessels)
-Stratified epithelium contains two or more layers of epithelial cells; only the cells in the
basal layer are in contact with the basement membrane; the multiple layers make it strong
and capable of resisting stress and protecting underlying tissue (esophagus, pharynx and
vagina)
-Pseudrostratified epithelium looks layered because the cells’ nuclei are distributed at
different levels between the apical and basal surfaces; although all of these cells reach the
basement membrane, some of them do not reach the apical surface
-Squamous cells are flat, wide, and somewhat irregular in shape; the nucleus looks like a
flattened disc; the cells are arranged like irregular, flattened floor tiles
-Cuboidal cells are about as tall as they are wide; these cells do not resemble perfect cubes
because the do not have squared edges
-Columnar cells are slender and taller than they are wide; the cells look like hexagonal
columns aligned next to each other; the nucleus is usually located in the basal region of the
cell
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