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Chapter 1

ANAT 100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Abdominopelvic Cavity, Cranial Cavity, Epithelium

Anatomy and Cell Biology
Course Code
ANAT 100
Leslie W Mac Kenzie

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Module 1: Foundations of the Human Body
1.1 Organization of the Human Body
Levels of structural organization
1. Chemicals: Atoms organized into molecules
2. Cells: Molecules organized into cells
3. Tissues: Cells organized into tissues (epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous)
4. Organs: Structures comprised of two or more types of tissues
5. Systems: Consists of related organs with common functions
6. Intact organism: All the systems are structurally integrated
Structural plan
1. Body Divisions:
2. Body Cavities (Axial division of the body):
Dorsal body cavity
Cranial cavity
Vertebral (spinal) canal
Ventral body cavity:
Thoracic cavity
Abdominopelvic cavity
Organ Systems
1. Integumentary: Skin, Hair, Nails, Sense receptors, Sweat gland,
2. Skeletal System: Bones, Joints
3. Muscular System: Muscles
4. Nervous System: Brain, Spinal Cord, Nerves
5. Endocrine System: Pituitary gland, Hypothalamus, Thyroid gland, Parathyroid, Thymus,
Adrenals, Pancreas (islet tissue),
6. Digestive System: Mouth, Pharynx, Esophagus, Stomach, Small intestine, Large intestine,
Rectum, Anal canal
7. Respiratory System: Nose, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Lungs
8. Cardiovascular System: Heart, Blood vessels, Blood
9. Lymphatic System: Lymph nodes, Lymph vessels, Thymus, Spleen, Tonsils
10. Urinary System: Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary bladder, Urethra
11. Reproductive System: Gonads, Genital Ducts, Accessory organs, Genitalia
1.2 Anatomical Nomenclature
Anatomical position
Directional terms
1. Superior (cranial): Above, over
2. Inferior (caudal): Below, under
3. Anterior (ventral): In front of, front
4. Posterior (dorsal): After, behind, following, toward the rear
5. Medial: Toward the mid-line, middle, away from the side
6. Lateral: Toward the side, away from the mid-line
7. Proximal: Near, closer to the origin
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8. Distal: Away from, farther from the origin
9. Superficial: closer to the surface of the body
10. Deep: farther from the surface of the body
11. Parietal: related to the walls of the cavity
12. Visceral: located on or among the viscera
Plains and Sections of the Body
1. Sagittal
2. Coronal (frontal)
3. Horizontal (transverse)
4. Oblique
5. Longitudinal
Body Quadrants
Upper left and right
Lower left and right
Tissues are collections of specialized cells and cell products that perform a specific function.
Organs are formed by two or more tissues that are united in patterns to perform a series of
specific functions.
Systems are formed by an interacting group of organs that performs one or more specific
functions essential for the well being of the organism.
1.3 Basic Tissue: Epithelium
Epithelium is a tissue composed of closely apposed cells with very little or no intervening intercellular
Examples of Basic Tissues:
Epithelial tissue
Connective tissue (including cartilage, bone, blood)
Muscle tissue (smooth, cardiac, skeletal)
Nerve tissue
Characteristics of Epithelium:
Cellularity: adjacent cells are joined by specialized junctions
Polarity: an epithelial cells has an exposed (apical) surface that faces the exterior of the body or
internal space, and a basal surface where it is attached the underlying tissue
Attachment: the epithelial cells rest on and are attached to the basal lamina (basement membrane)
Avascularity: the tissue has no direct contact with blood vessels
Regeneration: the cells are renewed continuously
Functions of Epithelium:
Cover and line surfaces
Protection (skin)
Permeability (absorption in the digestive system)
Sensation (skin)
Contractility/secretion (of glandular cells)
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