APSC 221 : Lecture 1
Types of Organizations:
- Public for profit: Publicly Traded
- Privately held companies
- Non Profit organizations
Management process (all organizations):
- Planning: Determining goals, developing strategy for achieving them. Five step planning
process. 1. Goals – Desired outcome
2. Gap Analysis - Where we are vs. where we want to be.
3. Plans – How to achieve the goals. Resources needed, etc.
4. Thinking converts to action - Applying resources, etc.
5. Results vs. planned - Assessing success, etc.
Strategic Plans – Long range, Priorities and strategic goals (how to be successful in the long
Tactical Plans – Short Term Implementation
Operational Plans – Day to Day: Ex. Which worker does what, what resources to use for
immediate project etc.
Involves interactions between people. Ie. Managers to their subordinates.
Much more than demanding results. Often required guiding, motivating and coaching
employees. No one distinct style. Leading may require different methods for different
workers and work type.
Thinking about individual work activities. How to implement the plan using the resources
at hand. Arranging the jobs and making sure tasks are completed efficiently.
Whether or not the project was a success. Mesurement of success may be subjective.
Performance standard evaluation, where they too high? Too low?
- Top Management : Responsible for overall performance
- Middle Management : Responsible for implementation of decisions - First-Line Management: Responsible for supervision of employees
** Hierarchy system**
Areas of Management:
- Marketing managers : Getting the product/services to the customer
- Financial Managers: Planning and overseeing financial resources
- Engineering manages: Conceiving, designing, planning and implementation of the
company’s product and/or services.
- Operation Managers: Managing the production systems that create product
- Human Resources managers: supports hiring, firing, training, evaluation and
compensation to employees.
- Information Managers: Gather of data, process and disseminate information.
Top management is more conceptual, First-line is more technical. Human relations (leadership,
persuasion etc.) are important in all levels.
Time management is important to improve efficiency and to maintain a productive use of time.
Decision-Making: recognize and define the decision situation. Identify, evaluate, and select the
best alternative. Optimization is key.
Decision Making Skills:
1. Recognizing and defining the decision situation
2. Identifying alternatives
3. Evaluating alternatives
4. Selecting best alternative
5. Implement chosen alternative
6. Follow up and evaluating results
Purpose of setting goals: