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Chapter 5

BIOL 102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Ketose, Aldose, Dehydration Reaction


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 102
Professor
Dr. W.A. Snedden
Chapter
5

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CHAPTER FIVE
Polymer- long molecule consisting of many monomers
Enzymes- specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions
Dehydration reaction- monomers are bonded with the loss of a water molecule *draw*
Hydrolysis reaction- polymers are disassembled to monomers with the addition of water
Catalyst- speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by the reaction
Genomics- Comparing whole genomes of different species
Proteomics- comparing large sets of proteins
Metabolomics- analysis of small molecules called metabolites
Carbohydrates
- Sugars or polymers of sugars
- Monosaccharides- monomer (ex. Glucose)
o Depending on the location of the carbonyl group, a
sugar is either an aldose or a ketose (glucose is an
aldose, fructose is a ketose)
- Disaccharide- two monosaccharides joined by a glyosidic linkage
- Polysaccharides- macromolecules
o In the form of starch in plant and
glycogen in animals for storage
o The polysaccharide cellulose is used for
structure for the cell wall
- Hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon in glucose is either positioned above (alpha)
or below (beta)
- Chitin- carbohydrate used by arthropods to build their exoskeletons and in fungi
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