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Chapter 12

BIOL 102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Red Blood Cell, Sister Chromatids, Centrosome


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 102
Professor
Dr. W.A. Snedden
Chapter
12

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Mitosis
Terms
Binary Fission- to produce two identical daughter cells
Mitosis- The duplication and division of chromosomes to two genetically identical daughter
cells
- Used for body to grow and repair
Inheritance- distribution of genes/chromosomes to offspring
Multinucleated cells- have more than one nucleus, can’t divide
Red blood cell- doesn’t have a nucleus so it can carry more hemoglobin, can’t divide
- Can make more red blood cells by tracing back to stem cells which they are made
from
Cell cycle- sum of all events in the life of a cell
Chromatin- DNA and proteins (largely histones)
Checkpoints- permit the cell to determine if all of the required steps
are done before moving to the next phase of the cell cycle
Centromere- region of the chromosome
Kinetochore- proteins associated with the centromere
Centrosome- proteins that are found at the poles of the cell
Centriole- the 2 major subunits of a centrosome
Microtubules- made of dynein and kinesin
- Attached to cargo, direction depends on the motor protein and polarity of the
microtubule
- Connected to kinetochore and centrosomes
Sister chromatids- duplicated chromosomes connected by the centromere
Interphase
G1- Deciding whether to begin the processes needed for mitosis
S phase- synthesize the materials needed for daughter cells
- Each individual chromosome undergoes DNA replication
- The duplicated chromosome is composed of two identical
chromatids,
G2- time required to let cell make everything it needs (doubling
organelles)
G0- cells that have exited the cell
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