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Chapter 1-20

BIOL 201 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-20: Xylem, Motility, Equisetopsida


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIOL 201
Professor
Paul Grogan
Chapter
1-20

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-Androecium: (1) the oral whorl that comprises the stamen (2)
in leafy liverworts, a packetlike swelling containing the antheridia
- Angiosperm: seed borne in a vessel (carpel) thus one of a group
of plants whose seeds are borne within a mature ovary
descendant
- Annulus: (in ferns) a row of specialized cells in a sporangia
- Anther: the pollen bearing portion of a stamen
- Antheridiophore: in some liverworts, a stalk that bears
antheridia
- Antheridia (antheridium): sperm producing structure that may
be unicellular or multicellular
-*Antipodals: three (sometimes more) cells of the mature
embryo sac, located at the end of opposite the microphyle
- Archegoniophore: in some liverworts, a stalk that bears
archegonia
- Bark: nontechnical tern applied to all tissues outside the
vascular cambium in a woddy stem
- Bisexual ower: has at least one functional stamen and one
functioning carpel
- Bract: modied, usually reduced, leaf like structure
-*Cambium: a meristem that gives rise to a parallel row of cells
- *Carpel: one of the members of the gynoecium, or inner oral
whorl; each carpel encloses one or more ovules. One or more
carpels form a gynoecium
- Columella:
- Capsules: (1) in angiosperms, a dehiscent, dry fruit that
develops from two or more carpels (2) the sporangium in
bryophytes
- Cercinate vernation:
- Deciduous: shedding leaves at a certain season
- Dehiscence: the opening of an anther, fruit or other structure,
which permits the escape of reproductive bodies contained
within
- Dichotomy: division or forking of an axis into two branches
- Dioecious: Unisexual; having male and female (or staminate
and ovulate) elements on di&erent individuals of the same
species
- Dimorphism: the condition of having two distinct forms (ex.
sterile fertile leaves in ferns or sterile and fertile shoots in
horsetails)
- *Endosperm: tissue containing stored food that develops from
the union of a male nucleus and the polar nuclei of the central
cell; it is digested by the growing sporophyte before or after
maturation of the seed (found only in angiosperms)
-Elater: elongated (spindle shaped) sterile cell in the sporangium
of liverworts sporophyte that aids in spore dispersal

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- Eustele: stele in which the primary vascular tissues are
arranged in discrete strands around a pith (typical of
gymnosperms and angiosperms)
- Exine:
- Gamete: haploid reproductive cell; gametes fuse in pairs to form
zygotes (which are diploid)
- Gametophore: (in Bryophytes) a fertile stalk that bears
gametangia
- Gametophyte: in plants with alternation of generations, the
haploid (n) gamete-producing generation
- Gemmae: small mass of vegetative tissue (ex. outgrowth in
thallus of liverworts) it can develop into an entire new plant
-*Gynoecium: the aggregate of carpels in the ower of a seed
plant
-*Gynostrobilus: spiral arrangement of gynosporophylls with
ovules borne on axial (upper)surface
- Herbaceous: referring to nonwoody plants
- Heterosporous: having two kinds of spores (designated as
microspores and megaspores)
- Homosporous: only having one kind of spore
- Imperfect ower: a ower lacking either stamen or carpel
- Incomplete ower: a ower laking one or more of the four
kinds of oral parts; sepals, petals, stamen or carpel
- Indehiscent: remaining closed at maturity
- Integument: the outermost layer or layers of tissue enveloping
the nucellus of an ovule; develops into the seed coat
- *Indusium: in a fern leaf, a membranous growth of the
epidermis that covers a sorus
-*Leptoids: food-conducting cells associated with the hydroids of
some moss gametophyte and sporophyte
- *Megagametophyte (embryo sac): in heterosporous plants
the female gametophyte; locate din the ovule of seed plants
- *Megaphyll: generally large leaf with several to many leaves
- *Megasporangia (megasporangium): a sporangium in which
megaspores are produced
- *Megaspore: in heterosporous plants, a haploid (n) spore that
develops into a female gametophyte, in most groups
megaspores are larger than microspores
- *Megasporophyll: a leaf or leaf like structure bearing a
megasporangium
- *Microgametophyte in heterosporous plants, the male
gametophyte
- *Megagametogenesis: the development of a megaspore into
an embryo sac, which is the gametophyte - though a highly
reduced one - stage in the life cycle of vascular plants.
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