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Lecture 1.docx

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Biology
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BIOL 205
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Prof.

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Bio 205 Lecture 1 ­Used to think if we sequenced all genomes ▯ Figure out why we’re all so different ­Gregor Mendel ▯ crossed peas ▯ Principles of Segregation ­1900­1925 devoted to providing chromosomes were hereditary material ­Has unique banding patterns ­Watson and Crick came up with the structure of DNA in 1925—1953 ­Stole data to solve DNA structure ▯ British won vs. American  ­Rosalind Franklin ▯ woman that they couldn’t get along with ▯ Fired her right before the discovery but  used her data ­1950­1975 ▯ Learning how DNA is read, replicated, transcription, translation and developing tools ▯ Massive search for how things work ▯ Prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcription ▯ have unique aspects ▯ Cloning and restriction enzymes (Slow process towards discovery) ▯ Looked at obvious cells like hemoglobin ▯ have tremendous amounts of RNA ­DNA make RNA which make protein ­RNA makes DNA ▯ Including virus ones  ▯ RNA is not made all the time, there is regulation  (Epigentics) ▯Some diseases (autism) require more than one mutated gene ▯ RNA cannot make protein ­Eukaryotic cells has lots of different types of RNA ▯ Like ribosomal RNA which is made in a fictitious  place (nucleolus) ▯ need 3 different RNA polymerase to coordinate a eukaryotic cell ­Immense project and the cost was close to 1 billion$ ▯ politicians preferred them to map where genes are  and look at those instead of mapping genome ▯Didn’t know how to deal with data once generated ▯ Robots were build ▯ Automatic Colony Picker ▯ Takes bacteria out of a plate, isolate DNA and feed it to a machine ▯ 160000 samples/day ▯ Speed of sequencing has increased ­Sequence has taught us that: ▯ More complex than we expect ▯ Used to be one gene one protein ▯ now its one gene with several proteins that can interact with  lots of different proteins ▯ Where does data go and who analysis it ­Emerging Technologies ▯ Synthetic Biology ­Construction of DNA to bu
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