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Lecture 1.pdf

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Queen's University
BIOL 205

Biol 205 : Molecular Developmental genetics William Bendena Room 2445 Biosciences complex 613-533-6121 [email protected] Gregor Mendel -1865 Figure 1.1 Principles of Segregation No one cared! 35 Years Later: Mendel’s experiments confirmed Carl Hugo Eric van Tsechermak de Vries Correns 1900-1925 devoted to proving chromosomes were hereditary material 46 human chromosomes 1925-1953 –Structure of DNA James Franciss Pauling Watson Crick James Watson Francis Crick Rosalind Franklin 1950-1975 : Learning how DNA is read! Replication Transcription Translation Developing Tools! CENTRAL DOGMA RNA Epigenetics Late 1980’s – Projecting strategies! all the letters … freely available to everyone in every country! New technology had to be developed! Automated sequencing facility 7 million letters of sequence/day ~4000 letters worldwide/second July 2005 January 2005 April 2007 Dec 2005 June 2, 2003 January 10, 2010 Complexity greater Genetic screening + than expected! Sequencing too slow and expensive! Information Overload! Baffled by failure to uncover genetic variants Emerging T echnologies Synthetic Biology • Construction of DNA to build organisms that can perform tasks - Develop new biofuels - Drug production - Environmental cleanup 'Artificial life' breakthrough announced by scientists – MAY 20 , 2010 And man made life Artificial life, the stuff of dreams and nightmares, has arrived May 20th 2010 1980’s Its an RNA WORLD RNA FUNCTIONS AS AN ENZYME RIBOZYMES Tom Cech- Noble Prize 1989 RNAi (double-stranded RNA) dsRNA inhibits the gene to which it is made- degradation and Andrew Fire block! Nobel Prize 2006 Micro RNAs • Short RNAs have emerged as a new means of diagnosing and treating disease • MicroRNA- a) block translation of mRNA into protein b) initiate breakdown of normal mRNA - Some up or down regulate a single gene - Others regulate multiple gene networks microRNA-21 initiates and maintains tumours in vivo Nature, 2 September 2010 microRNA-21 (miR-21) is overexpressed in most types of human cancer, but no experiments have demonstrated a causal role for this microRNA in tumourigenesis. Slack and colleagues have shown in vivo that miR-21 is one of a few single oncogenes capable of initiating and maintaining a m
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