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Chapter 1

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Queen's University
BIOL 205
Ian D Chin- Sang

Chapter 1 Genetics and the OrganismGeneallelesDouble helicalmolecule called DNA What makes a species what it is And what caused variation in a speciesThe main macromolecules of an organism amino acid sequence for a protein is encoded in the geneAny one gene can exist in several dierent formsallelic variation causes hereditary variation which can become protein variation11 Genes as determinants of the inherent properties of speciesReplication1st stage is production of cell type that ensures continuation of a speciesthese cells are gametes 2nd stage is when a fertilized egg zygote divides repeatedlyGeneration of formworking structures that make up an organism contain the DNAMutationa gene changed from one allelic form to another underwent mutationraw material for evolutionDNA and its replication Genomeorganisms complement of DNASomatic cells contain two copies of their genome and are therefore called diploid Bacteria fungi and algae only have one copy and are haploidEach chromosome in the genome carries an array of genes in diploid each chromosome and its component genes are present twice 46 chromosomes in humansthey are homologous because they are the sameThis allows each daughter cell to receive the full complement of chromosomesDNA strands come apart to expose nucleotide chains that act as templates for the deposition of free nucleotides which are joined together by DNA polymerase to form a new strand Generation of formStructural proteinsare microtubule muscle and hair proteins that are active agents in cellular processes such as active transports or enzymesPrimary protein structure is a polypeptideamino acid chain coiled and folded to make a proteinThe sequence of nucleotides in a gene species the sequence of amino acids put together to produce a polypeptide which folds under the amino acid sequences inuence to make a certain proteinTranscriptionFirst step taken by a cell to make a protein is to copy the RNAOccurs in the cell nucleus DNA is a template for making RNARNA copy that is made is called a transcript it becomes the working copy and is mRNAmRNA enters the cytoplasm where it is used by cellular machinery to manufacture protentranslationchain of amino acids based on nucleotides from mRNA
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