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Chapter 1.1

CHEM 112 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1.1: Nonmetal, Magnesium, Ion


Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 112
Professor
John Carran
Chapter
1.1

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Gases- Monatomic: stand-alone, noble gasses ,Diatomic: HOFBrINCl (2 same
atoms)
Binary: Simple: 1 charge/ oxidation # on cation- >Crossover method: switch the
oxidation #s, reduce if necessary ex: Magnesium (+2) and Oxygen (2) MgO
Complex: more than 1
-ionic: transfer of e-, metal+ non-metal Stannum, Plumbum, Ferrum, Cuprum,
Aurum (ic - high) (ous-low)
ex: Tin(+2,+4) Oxygen (-2), latin :Stannous Oxide, Stannic Oxide, stock: Tin ( II)
Oxide, Tin ( IV) Oxide
-covalent: non-metal + non-metal - prefixes , not necessary if only 1 for cation:
Mono(1) , di (2), tri (3), tetra(4), penta (5), hexa (6), hepta (7), octa (8), nona
(9),deca (10)
Ex: Carbon (+4) Oxygen (-2) = C2O4--> CO2 --> Carbon dioxide
Ex2: P2O5 --> Diphosphorus Pentoxide
Polyatomic Ions: Nitrate (NO31-), Carbonate(CO32-), Chlorate(ClO31-), Sulphate(
SO42-), Phosphate ( PO43-), Hydroxide(OH1-), Ammonium (NH41+)
Sig Dig: non-0s& 0s after it are sig, 0s b4 1st non-0 digit= not sig 7.01 (3), 6.00 (3),
0.04 (1)
+/- ans. needs = # of decimal places as number w/ least amt. of decimal places in
calculation ex: 4.5+5.34=9.8
x/÷ ans. needs = # of sig dig as number w/ least # of sig dig in calculation 6.0 x
1.54= 9.2
Scientific Notation: exponent on 10 = # of places moved 22 414 mL = 2.2414 x104
mL , 0.00000078 m = 7.8x10-7 m
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