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Chapter 2

Chapter Two Rome's New Kings- The second Romulus.docx

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Classical Studies
CLST 101
Christina Zaccagnino

Chapter Two: Rome's New Kings- The second Romulus February-03-13 2:43 PM  Battle of Actium, sept 2 31 BCE  Octavian gained power by force of arms but he cannot be though of as a military dictator o He was in control of everything y the consent of everybody  The senate granted him a huge provincia in which to exercise his imperium  Along with this settlement came the restoration and the regularisation of much of the traditional machinery of administration: annual elections of magistrates, meetings of the senate and the people in the assembly  He was so invested with the imperium of a proconsul, but it was specifically stated to be greater than that of other proconsuls  19 BCE by giving him the power of a consul with out his having to hold the consulship  He was given power of a tribune  It signifignatly lay in the way in which is associated the emperor with the tradition of the popular tribunes of the republic and their role as protectors and promoters of the interests of the ordinary people, in power as the peoples champion  Augustus. A title which implied 'holy', associated with the gods o The Greek translation of Augustus, sebatos (worship)  This focusing of power in the hands of a single roman made it possible for greater order and pattern to exist in the roman world  In the roman forum Augustus set up a golden milestone. From its distances were measured along the roads which radiated from the city across Italy and into the provinces  Augustus could justly boast that he had found Rome a city of brick and left a city of marble, over his reign Augustus transformed Rome into a city which was visibly worthy of being the capital of the whole Mediterranean  For ordinary people the creation of internal peace meant economic revival The key to Augustus's creation of peace within the empire lay in his treatment of military  forces  The civil wars suggested that legions had a interest in unrest. Augustus 'great achievement was to give them a stake in stability  After 31 BCE the system was gradually regulated, eventually into 20 year service, legionaries received a lump sum on discharge  Service in the legion now became a career with regular pay, significant privileges, the possibility of promotion= rise on social ladder, and reward on retirement  Augustus revived ancient tradition that the gates of the shrine of Janus where closed when the whole empire was at peace o Closed on three occasions during his reign  Military campaigns tied in with the ultimate objective of peace  Republicanism had no wide spread support, most people wanted an assured and undisputed transfer of power which would not disrupt the stability  A successor needed o have what would be widely acknowledged as a legitimate claim to position  First the heir to the emperors vast personal wealth and patronage could not be set aside and second the oath of loyalty which everyone swore throughout the empire was to the emperor and his family, so it was easy for people to transfer their loyalty to another member of the family and see the legitimacy of his claim  Augustus's closest associate Marcus Agrippa, turned to Tiberius and adopted him as son and her, no doubt about successor  Tiberius not looking to lessen power or give up supreme position; what he wanted was to be relived if the day to day administration  The emperor controlled every aristocrats career, so inventible that ambitious men would avoid doing anything to offend emperor  What Tiberius was offering the senate was responsibility with out power, a gift the senate was bound to reject. If decisions were to be made the could be made only by the emperor or with a lead from him  Rome had no police force and no public prosecution service, so prosecution depended on private individuals who had to
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