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Chapter 1

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Queen's University
Classical Studies
CLST 101
Christina Zaccagnino

CLST101 PART 1 IDEOLOGY HISTORY AND ADMINISTRATION CHAPTER 1 THE IDEA OF ROME 75331 BCFamous Story There is no definition of a Roman unlike an AthenianPaul was a Greekspeaking Jew from Tarsus who inherited his status as a citizen of Rome from his father by birthClaudius Lysias the commander of a garrison was a slave in the service of Emperor Claudius before buying his freedom by taking on the status of his master to become a Roman citizenRome was inconveniently sited as a center for a large empire that was rarely visited by emporers who spent their time in palaces and cities such as Milan Aquileia Constantinople and Nicaea along the great eastwest road which formed the communication corridor across Europe All roads however didnt lead to RomeRomes geographical position can explain the early prominence and exceptional growth of the site of Rome in central Italy with Palatine and Capitoline Hills providing easily defensible sites which overlooked the lowest convenient crossingpoint on the riverRome was the key to the network of an inland route to the south running past centers of Gabii and Praeneste down to the valley of the Trerus and Alban Hills connecting the line of early communications there This included Castel di Decima Lavinium Ardea Satricum and LatiumHuman occupation was proven at the very end of the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age 1000 BC in the central region of Rome the Forum and the Palatine and the QuirinalBy the end of the 7nth century BC they lived in small villages of huts joined together to form their first urban community and the wet valley bottom below the Capitol was drained and paved to become the Forum the central meeting place surrounded by the first public buildingsThe Capitol became an acropolis for the city and the site of an enormous temple to the cult of Jupiter Best and thGreatest By the end of the 6 century Rome was already the largest and most elaborately developed urban site in the region with a sizeable territory which covered most of the plain and surrounding hills Modern knowledge of early Rome is largely derived from archaeology and the first historian was Quintus Fabius rdPictor a Roman senator of the end of the 3 century BC Romans originsfoundation myth was very complex and it focused on things which were agreed to be badwildness exile rootlessness brutality and killing instead of emphasizing positive elements like good ordernatural advantages GreeksAnother common thing was to say your ancestors travelled a long journey to found the communityRomulus and Remus were the miraculous sons of Mars the god associated with the pointless fury of warwho were turned out of their households exposed to savages and nature only to be rescued and suckled by a shewolf an animal that commonly embodies ferocity like lions CLST101 The twins were later found by shepherds near a fig tree people considered outsiders and uncivilized When they grew up they decided to fond a city but in a quarrel of who should have the right to found the city Romulus killed his brother In order to establish Rome Romulus encouraged the homeless and vagabonds of Italy to come to the city and take refuge at the Asylum as well as pillaged resources from neighbors and abductingraping Sabine women for reproduction In Italy ancient connections with the Greek world were often given a background in the myth of Herakles Hercules stories of the wanderings of heroes and their followers which followed the Trojan Warmade famous in Homers epicsHercules made appearances in the original stories and was worshipped at a Great Altar located at the river harbor on the Tiber which encouraged the settlement of people from overseasAeneas was a Trojan hero that tied Romans to the world of Greece after wandering the world after the sac of Troy before settling in central Italy where he founded the community where Romulus and Remus were later born Rome became significant in the Mediterranean refer to class notes There was a formation of a cult by fourth century BC at the sacred center of Lavinium with Roman magistrates were involved and Rome became significant in the Mediterranean turning into a definitive form through the epic the Aeneid written by Virgil to glorify Romes first emperor Augustus FOUNDING FATHERS Etruscan kings ruled Rome for two and a half centuries as Romulus was succeeded by Numa Pompilius Tullus Hostilius Ancus Marcius Tarquinius Priscus Servius Tullius Tarquinus SuperbusThe first Tarquinius is associated with major building works in Rome and his reign was the time that archaeology reveals the first large civic buildingsTradition ascribes to the kings the creation of many of the fundamental institutions and social structures that were Romes characteristics later onthThe society of Rome and Italy in the 6 century BC has an everincreasing number of inscriptions particularly from the cities of Etruria They reveal a world where men of influence moved easily from community to community with their families and retainersThe gens clan was an important institution that consisted of a group of families who claimed descent rom a thcommon ancestor and in the 6 century the practice grew up of individuals adding the name of a gens to a personal name where loyalty to family and clan is greater than any identification with a civic community Sodales friendscompanions Aristocratic individuals were extremely important and their primary loyalties were their families and followers who only reluctantly never completely subordinated their own interests Ex Fabii gens marched out on behalf of Rome to fight Veii they were defeated and killed except one who was to keep the family line goingKings were initially clanchiefs who gained a recognition for their leadership from the community They were named imperium a concept which designates the right to give orders to those of lower status and expect them to
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