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Chapter 3

Clst 200 reading notes for chapter 3

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Classical Studies
CLST 200

Clst 200 Textbook readings Chapter 3: Mycenaeans If these help you in any way please consider sending me ([email protected]) notes from lectures 4 or 9. Or post them on the website.  The Mycenaeans o First Greek-speakers to appear in history. o C. 1600 – Mainland Greece shows numerous large scale tholos (beehive) tombs  Houses at the time were in a form that slowly developed into the classic megaron of the Mycenaean palace o Shaft graves  Discovered by Heinrich Schliemann  Rich collection of luxury goods  Reused -- Multiple people buried in each one  Roofed  Funeral meal afterwards  Remains of meal scattered on earth  Stele – grave marker  Graves grouped in two circles  Circle A – reconstructed and enclosed by a stone circle in later times. o 6 deep shafts o Graves richer than circle B  Circle B – o 14 shafts  Used in the same time period  Gold death masks found in graves  Niello technique – called painting in metal. o Used on the inlaid daggers found in circles  Items found are combinations of Minoan and Helladic cultures – called Mycenaean. o Name extended to whole culture.  Bodies in good condition – suggests rich elites. o Tholos tombs  Ca. 1525 to 1300/1275  First appeared in Mainland Greece in Messenia at the time of the Shaft graves of Mycenae.  Corbelled arch – Not a true arch as it does not have a keystone. Support comes from weight of the earth.  Dromos – a long entryway to the tomb.  Reused as well  Koukounara – 17 tholoi found.  Mycenaean armor matching Homeric descriptions found in one.  Three chronological types of Tholos o The Fall of Knossos  C. 1450 Widespread destruction of palace sites on Crete.  Tablets found similar to Linear A, called Linear B. o The Mycenaean palace period  Earliest palace is that at the Menelaion at Sparta (ca. 1450-1400).  Megaron – central core of a palace, rooms built off sides.  Very imposing defensive walls.  Built with huge blocks of stone.  Greeks called them Cyclopean masonry  Used ramps  Minoan palaces central room was a large central courtyard.  Focus of Mycenaean palaces are the Megaron (or Megara, as sometimes they had two)
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