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Chapter 4

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Department
Classical Studies
Course
CLST 200
Professor
Prof.
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter Four: From the Bronze Age to the Iron Age – A Dark Age?  The End of the Bronze Age o Egypt attacked by Sea Peoples in 1186  Used a locally-made pottery that copied Mycenaean style and was at first called Mycenaean  Objection to the Sea Peoples being Mycenaean : “Pots don’t equal people” o Other well established kingdoms fall victim to various attackers  Hittite empire collapses after 1200  Troy suffered extensive destruction – may be the Trojan war  These attacks filled the world with refugees o Mycenaens anticipated trouble and bolstered defenses.  At Mycenae a long tunnel was constructed to reach an underground spring beyond the walls.  120 foot shaft dug at Athens leading to a spring.  Evidence of attacks from sea found at Pylos.  Pylos never reoccupied  Some places that were attacked managed to rebuild while others were completely destroyed.  Troy and the Trojan War o Story of Troy may be preserved memory of these times.  Schliemann used details from the Illiad to find a site he thought to be Troy  Evidence of at least seven superimposed cities  King Priam’s treasure: Artifacts and jewels found by Schliemann th o War of Troy fits well into the time of troubles happening in the 12 century.  Also fits into struggles between the Hittites and the Mycenaeans  The Ionian Migration o Speakers of Ionian Greek migrate to the northern Anatolian coast which will eventually be called Ionia  Athens took credit for the leadership of this migration. o Halicarnassus and Smyrna eventually become Ionian cities, either by culture (H) or officially (S) o Miletus shows continuous occupation. o Tradition gave Athens a key role in the migrations  Meeting place for refugees  Provider of assistance and leadership for the trip across the Aegean to Ionia.  Founder of some Ionian cities said to be Pylos  Solon: Athens is “the oldest home of the ancient Ionian race”  Athens most likely wanted to take credit for this due to the formation of an Ionian League by the twelve cities established by settlers.  Celebrate ethnic identity with the Panionia  During Athenian empire many Ionian cities paid tribute to them  This myth would serve to justify Athens power over the Ionians  Hints that Athens did play some role in the actual migrations.  Cyprus as a Refuge o Cyprus well-known source of copper o Island attracted many Mycenaean refugees o Lived side by side with Cypriots o Island eventually becomes Hellenised due to central Mycenaean presence  The cause(s) of the collapse(s) at the End of the Bronze Age o Greeks later attributed their problems at this time to a Dorian Invasion.  Sons of Herakles – Dorian speakers driven out a century earlier  Most convincing argument for this is the distribution of the Greek dialects in the classical period  Does not account for the widespread nature of the collapse  Fits well with Athenians later claim of supremacy over the Dorian population  “they deserve it” o Sea Peoples are a more likely option  Support of historical documentation o Earthquakes most likely destroyed many of the palaces  Recovery: The Eleventh and Early Tenth Centuries o With loss of Mycenaean palaces the practice of writing disappeared  Some Mycenaeans rebuilt palaces and expanded upon them.  Changes im
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