Textbook Notes (363,185)
Canada (158,247)
CLST 200 (14)
Prof. (6)
Chapter 5

clst 200 Chapter 5.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Queen's University
Classical Studies
CLST 200

Chapter 5: Archaic Greece: The Eighth Century Renaissance and Revolution  Archaic Period – the eighth through the sixth centuries o Interconnections between Greece and Near East reached a peak o Been called the Greek Renaissance  Recalls Mycenaean culture o Also called the Orientalizing Revolution  Eastern influences are prominent o Literary Evidence: Homer  Illiad and Odyssey conventionally dated to 750 and 720  Depicted bronze age for an Iron age audience.  Homer’s heroes knew nothing of Mycenaean culture and palaces  Homer avoided present day material  People most likely fake but places described are real  Archaeologists now believe Trojan war likely happened  Odyssey reflects Eastern contacts such as Phoenicians  Appear in a negative light o Competition rather than cooperation was the goal of the time  Shows Homer was trying to play to the audience rather than paint an accurate picture  Illiad : Warfare is tragic and humans aren’t perfect  Odyssey: Longing for home and the glory of adventures at sea.  Poem’s told in Dactylic Hexameter  Used formulae of a name and an epithet : fleet-footed Achilles o Literary Evidence: Hesiod  Hesiod’s Theogony: relates generations and genealogies of the gods and other divine beings.  Ex: castration of Uranos by Kronos o Appears in Hittite mythology  Hesiod’s Works and Days: describes the year’s work of the farmer.  Advice on best sailing seasons and sort of ship to employ o Religion in Homer and Hesiod  Mute portrayals of dancing and processions in what might have been religious rites  Apparently religious symbols, such as the bull’s horns and the double axe  An abundance of ambiguous figurines that we call cult figures  Saw most Gods as human in form, behaving and misbehaving like humans  Many embodied elemental forces of nature o Zeus – storm clouds and bolts of lightening o Poseidon – the sea and earthquakes o Aphrodite – sexual attraction  Much of Greek religion centered on ways to placate the Gods and thus avoid the worst of life’s possible disasters  Worship sometimes carried on by individuals  Might offer prayers praising a god and making a request  Or make a small sacrifice  Most Greek worship was communal  Carried on at sanctuaries or temples  Each family and each city had its own patron divinity o Each divinity had his or her own expectations o They expected honor to be paid and sacrifices to be offered  Gods partook in savory smoke arising from the sacrificial fire  Worshippers enjoyed a communal meal  Crucial events of human life – birth, reaching adulthood, marriage, childbirth, death – were all occasions that required religious ritual  Certain physical situations were seen as especially dangerous for humans  Literally producing pollution o Touching dead bodies o Engagement in sexual intercourse even within marriage o Menstruation o Giving birth  Required cleansing rituals  Certain gods were believed to offer assistance to city-states in the form of oracles  Advice often riddling  The oracle of Apollo at Delphi is most famous example o Consulted about overseas settlements  Healing cults  Cult of Aesclepius – offered assistance to ailing individuals o Sanctuary at Epidauros o Those who slept overnight in the sanctuary received healing directly or by way of prescriptions  Secret mystery cults  Promised a blessed life after death to initiates o Most prominent is cult of Demeter and her daughter Kore at Eleusis  Hades kidnaps Kore  Demeter gets sad and crops don’t grow  World is in danger until Hades agrees to let Kore return for a part of each year  Annual return brings springtime and a season of fertility o Cult of Dionysys  Offered release from the pressures of everyday life, an encounter with the divine, and hope for a life after death o The Alphabet and Epic  Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet  About mid-eight century evidence appears that the Greeks in mainland Greece were writing again.  Greeks adapted alphabet to own needs o Used symbols not needed for Greek to express the sound of vowels o Alphabet based on the principle of a sign for every individual sound (phoneme) o May have been done to record epics. Greek alphabet able to record epic meter in a way that preserved and trans
More Less

Related notes for CLST 200

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.