Textbook Notes (368,147)
Canada (161,680)
CLST 200 (14)
Prof. (6)
Chapter 6

Clst 200 Chapter 6.docx

13 Pages
119 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Classical Studies
Course
CLST 200
Professor
Prof.
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 6 Crisis in the Polis: Two solutions  Tyranny: the view from Corinth o Living under a very restricted aristocracy in these changing times brought many cities to a state of political crisis that ultimately led to a takeover by a strong-man or Tyrant  Term used to refer to any ruler who came to power by irregular means  In its archaic usage the word does not necessarily imply that ruler was tyrannical in modern sense.  Such men broke grip of aristocrats and opened the way for a revised political structure.  Made the Polis the focus of civic authority  People gained a greater share in their own government. o City of Corinth is best document of the archaic tyrannies  8 century – Corinth ruled by a singled clan in a closed aristocracy – The Bacchiads  Founded Corcyra and Syracuse in a single year  We know Corinth best through its pottery  Earliest form called protocorinthian o Characterized b motifs: stylized flowers and friezes of hybrid animals. o Used Black Figure, figures portrayed with black glaze and incised decoration  Vases were tiny.  Later vases show quantity production and Near Eastern Influences o This type of pottery is classified as Corinthian  Further distinguish between Early, Middle, and Late Corinthian  75 painters or groups are known. o Metic – free itinerant craftsmen  Enterprising man could attain status as a painter in Corinth o Not found elsewhere, looked down upon o They signed their names  Large tile and ceramics factory found in Corinth.  Imported large shipping amphorai – undecorated commercial pots used for shipping and storage  Lelantine War  Dispute over possession of Lelantine plain o Between Euboean Etreria and Chalcis  Corinth built a new type of warship, the trireme, for use by the Samians in this war  Chalcis ultimate victor  Corinth’s position weakened by growing power of Argos under its tyrant, Pheidon.  664 – war with own settlement of Corcyra o First sea battle known to Thucydides  Contributed to increased dissatisfaction with Bacchiad rule o Cypselus overthrew them.  Cypselus  Growing militarism in this time. o Significant rise in number of men who could equip themselves with armor.  Even sacrificed it to the God.  Portrayed as popular ruler.  Gained popularity through office of Polemarch (Army leader) o Refused to imprison those who failed to pay fines  Accepting security from debtors or providing it for them.  Killed the last Bacchiad king o Exiled remaining members and confiscated their property  Built settlements that safeguarded route to Italy and Sicily. o Also opened up trade with interior of Greece  Had a son named Periander  Periander  Built new ports  Built Diolkos – stone runway across the isthmus that enabled ships to be pulled across to avoid the dangerous sea voyage around the Peloponeesus.  Increased attention (possibly founded) cult of Demeter and Kore.  Became archetype of an evil tyrant.  Aristotle says that he did not tax the people as the state could live from its market and harbour dues. o Tyrants attested in cities of Megara, Sicyon, Epidauros, Mytilene, and somewhat later, Athens.  Deal with socioeconomic tensions by the actions of a strongman  Tyrants often popular rulers  Reward supporters by opening citizenship and offices to them. o Gave opportunities to wealthy middle class.  Sponsored useful public works.  Water supply and temple building were favourite projects .  Also sponsored elaborate and entertaining festivals and games that celebrated the gods of the whole polis rather than private cults of Aristocrats  By their patronage of poets they advertised their own fame and the glory of their polis, further increasing civic pride.  In most cases it was only 2 or 3 generation that personal rule began to become oppressive again.  The Spartan Solution o Sparta was universally acknowledged by Greeks to be preeminent military power. o Left no written records o Society closed to neighbours o Some scholars call the picture we have “the Spartan mirage” – an illusion not reality  Represents image created by Sparta to intimidate their enemies o Spartans were Dorians  As were Corinth, Argos, and Knossos.  Spoke Dorian dialect of Greek. o Command of best land in valley of Eurotas River. o Lay in the center of Lakonia, or Lakedaimonia  Position of security and isolation  Mountains to the East and West  Isolation a result of deliberate choices o Lakonia well-populated in the Bronze Age  Sparta home of Menelaus th  Mid 10 century a group of Dorians who had been expelled from their homeland a hundred years earlier returned to reclaim their heritage  Known as Heraklids (Sons of Heracles)  Ancestors of the Spartans  Aggressive and warlike people.  Turned inhabitants of the area into subservient people, helots.  Famous for instigating the “Dorian invasion” believed to have been responsible for destruction of Mycenaean palatial civilization o Helots  Somewhere between slave and free  Tied to the land and could not be sold  Not chattel slaves ( not someone’s property) o Property of the state o Family members could not be sold away.  Could form stable families  Agricultural labourers o Took care of land assigned to Spartan citizens  As distance increased they settled in larger groups and had less contact with Spartan masters.  Spartans institute the Krypteia, or Secret Service  Selected strongest of their young men under 30. o Took only knives and food into the countryside. o Hid by day and killed strong helots or helots with leadership by night.  Annual declaration of Formal War on Helots  Spartan could kill helots with impunity during this time. o No pollution  Accompanied Spartan hoplites in battle as servers  Drafted into hoplite corps as Neodamodes o Inferior status. o Perioikoi  “Those living round about”  Inferior status  Groups under Spartan control  May have voluntarily subjected themselves.  Others may have been coerced.  Relegated to craft production and trade.  Did not bring high status  Manufactured and repaired the arms and equipment of Spartan army o Sparta did not share its name with the outlying territory  Citizens called Spartiates or Spartans.  Territory called Lakonia or Lakedaimonia o Had large quantities of Murex  Lakonians and Taras were primary producers of this dye  Used to color the famous crimson cloaks worn by Spartan hoplite warriors  Conquest of Messenia and its Consequences o Spartans used too many resources  Looked to the fertile land of the Messenians on the other side of Mount Taygetus o 1 Messenian War – 740-720  Spartans were the victors  Messenians who lived in outlying towns became Perioikoi  Those in fertile areas became Helots  Conquest made Sparta wealthy  Built first temple of Artemis Orthia  Most of riches from the war and a continuing trade in slaves  Founding of Taras a consequence of this  During this war that men were sent back.  Systia – common meals that Spartans ate together.  Lived and fought together.  Land allotted to wealthy Spartans  Expected half of the crops  Required Helots to deliver the produce themselves  New helots lived in constant hope of regaining freedo
More Less

Related notes for CLST 200

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit