Chapter Two Rome's New Kings- The second Romulus.docx

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Chapter Two: Rome's New Kings- The second Romulus
2:43 PM
Battle of Actium, sept 2 31 BCE
Octavian gained power by force of arms but he cannot be though of as a military dictator
o He was in control of everything y the consent of everybody
The senate granted him a huge provincia in which to exercise his imperium
Along with this settlement came the restoration and the regularisation of much of the
traditional machinery of administration: annual elections of magistrates, meetings of the
senate and the people in the assembly
He was so invested with the imperium of a proconsul, but it was specifically stated to be
greater than that of other proconsuls
19 BCE by giving him the power of a consul with out his having to hold the consulship
He was given power of a tribune
It signifignatly lay in the way in which is associated the emperor with the tradition of the
popular tribunes of the republic and their role as protectors and promoters of the interests of
the ordinary people, in power as the peoples champion
Augustus. A title which implied 'holy', associated with the gods
o The Greek translation of Augustus, sebatos (worship)
This focusing of power in the hands of a single roman made it possible for greater order and
pattern to exist in the roman world
In the roman forum Augustus set up a golden milestone. From its distances were measured
along the roads which radiated from the city across Italy and into the provinces
Augustus could justly boast that he had found Rome a city of brick and left a city of marble,
over his reign Augustus transformed Rome into a city which was visibly worthy of being the
capital of the whole Mediterranean
For ordinary people the creation of internal peace meant economic revival
The key to Augustus's creation of peace within the empire lay in his treatment of military
The civil wars suggested that legions had a interest in unrest. Augustus 'great achievement
was to give them a stake in stability
After 31 BCE the system was gradually regulated, eventually into 20 year service, legionaries
received a lump sum on discharge
Service in the legion now became a career with regular pay, significant privileges, the
possibility of promotion= rise on social ladder, and reward on retirement
Augustus revived ancient tradition that the gates of the shrine of Janus where closed when
the whole empire was at peace
o Closed on three occasions during his reign
Military campaigns tied in with the ultimate objective of peace
Republicanism had no wide spread support, most people wanted an assured and undisputed
transfer of power which would not disrupt the stability
A successor needed o have what would be widely acknowledged as a legitimate claim to
First the heir to the emperors vast personal wealth and patronage could not be set aside and
second the oath of loyalty which everyone swore throughout the empire was to the emperor
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