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Chapter 6

COMM 131 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Subculture, Dont

Course Code
COMM 131
Jacob Brower

of 4
Refers to the buying behaviour of final customers individuals and households that buy goods
for personal consumption (not to sell again)
Consumers have different buying behaviour
o EX: decision for buysing coffee is different than buying first house
Marketers study actual customer purchases to find out what they buy, where, and how much
But learning the “whys” of consumer buying is the hard part
Consumers don’t know what they want and what influences their purchases
General question for marketers: given all the characteristics (cultural, social, personal and
psychological) affecting consumer behaviour, how do we best design out marketing effort to
reach our consumers most effectively?
Before: there was emphasis on the actual exchange of the product making it called “buyer
o NOW: marketers recognize the study of consumer behaviour is ongoing and starts way
before the actual purchase and ends way after
o This means: marketers must be aware of a number of issues before, during and after
purchase to build brand loyality and lasting relationships
Cultural, social, personal, and psychological
Marketers can't control these factors for the most part but they still eed to take them in account
Culture, subculture and social class
The most basic cause of a person’s wants or behaviour
Human behaviour is learned from culture
Growing up in a society, a child learns basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviours from the
family and other important institutions
An American child learns or is expeosed to the following values: achievement and success,
activies and involvement, efficiency and practicality, progress, hardwork, material comfort,
individualism, freedom, humanitarianism, youthfulness, and fitness/health
o But Canadians see themselves differently than an American child
o One commonality between our two cultures is that our marketing practices are similar
Every group or society has a culture, and cultural influences on buying behaviour may vary from
country to country
DON’T ASSUME: that culture is a homogeneous system of shared meaning, way of lfe, or
unifying values
o It is too broad to say that all Canadians are like _______, or all Indians are like _______.
In diverse societies, such as Canada, there is a multiplicity of overlapping cultural groupings
o These in turn influenced by the fact we are part of a global marketplace
o Marketing practives and global media influence our values and consumption behaviours
and even affect how we interpret and make sense of the world
Marketers are always trying to spot cultural shifts to discover new products that might be
o EX: the cultural shift toward greater concern for health and fitness
Each culture has smaller subcultures
Subculture groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and
Include nationalituies, religion, racial groups, geographic regions
Many subcultures make up important market segments, and marketers often design products to
meet their needs
EX of subcultures: regional subcultures, first nations people, ethnic subcultures, and marute
Canada is a regional country so marketers can make different programs for: Atlantic provinces,
Quebec, central Canada, the Prairies, and BC
o Countries have sections within them with different character and personality
The economy of each region also differs
You also have to see how diverse the cultures are how many immigrants, first nations, etc.
Different age groups also divide up cultures into subcultures
Social classes = society’s relatively permanent and ordered dividiosn whose members share
similar values, interests, and behaviours
It is not determined by a single factor, such as income
o BUT, it is measured by: occupations, income, educations, wealth, etc.
Some places, it is easy to change social class while other places it isn’t
Influenced by social factors such as: small groups, family, and social roles/status
Many small groups influence a persons behavious
Groups =
Groups that have a direct influence are called membership groups
Reference groups = serve as direct or indirect points of comparison or reference in forming a
person’s attitudes or behaviour
o People are influenced by reference groups that they don’t belong to
o EX: an aspirational group is one which the individual wants to belong to like when you
want to become a hockey player
Reference groups: expose a person to new behaviours and lifestyles, influence the person’s
attitutdes and self-concept, and create preassures to conform that may affect the person’s
product and brand choice