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Chapter 6

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COMM 131
Jacob Brower

Marketing Chapter 6: Understanding Consumer and Business Buyer Behaviour January 24, 2012 Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behaviour - Consumer Buyer Behaviour: the buying behaviour of final consumers – individuals and households that buy goods for personal consumption - Consumer Market: all individuals and households that buy or acquire goods and services for personal consumption - Examine factors that affect consumer behaviour What is Consumer Behaviour? - Why they buy, where they buy, when they buy, how they buy, etc. - How do we best design marketing efforts to reach consumers most effectively? - Consumer behaviour starts before the purchase of a product and continues after it is consumed Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behaviour Cultural Social Personal Psychological Culture Reference Groups Age/Life Cycle Stage Motivation Subculture Family Occupation Perception Social Class Role and Status Economic Situation Learning Lifestyle Beliefs and Personality/Self- Attitudes Concept 1. Cultural Factors Culture - Culture: set of basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviours learned by a member of society from family and other important institutions - Human behaviour is learned from families and other institutions - Marketing and global media influence our values and behaviours, and affect how we interpret the world - Marketers try to find cultural shifts to discover new products Subculture - Subculture: group of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations - Design products tailored to their needs Social Class - Social Class: relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviours - Measured as a combination of occupation, income, education, and wealth - Show distinct product and brand preferences in certain areas (clothing, homes, automobiles, leisure activities) 2. Social Factors Groups and Social Networks - Group: two or more people who interact to accomplish individual or mutual goals - Membership Groups: have a direct influence - Reference Groups: serve as direct or indirect points of comparison in forming a person’s attitudes or behaviour - Reference groups expose a person to new behaviours and lifestyles, and create pressures to conform - Opinion Leaders: people within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, personality, and other characteristics, exert social influence on others (called the influentials or leading adopters) - Buzz Marketing: using opinion leaders to spread word about products - Online Social Networks: online communities where people socialize or exchange information and opinions - Companies use social networks to interact with consumers Family - Family members have a strong influence on buying behaviour - Wife has traditionally been the main purchasing agent for the family in areas of food, household productions, and clothing - Women make 85% of family purchases - Children have a strong influence on family buying decisions from where they go on vacation to what cars they buy Role and Status - People belong to many groups – family, clubs, organizations, etc. - Person’s position in each group is defined by role and status - Role: activities people are expected to perform according to people around them (ie. Working mother – brand manager, wife, mother, sports fan, etc.) - People choose products appropriate to their roles and status 3. Personal Factors Age and Life-Cycle Stage - Family Life Cycle: stages through which families pass through as they mature - Life stage changes often result from demographic factors – marriage, children - Marketers define target markets in terms of life-cycle stage - As consumers life stages change, so do their behaviour and purchasing preferences Occupation - Occupation affects products bought (ie. blue-collar worker buys more rugged clothes, executives buy more suits) - Marketers identify occupational groups that have an interest in their products Economic Situation - Marketers watch trends in personal income, savings, and interest rates - During a recession, most companies reposition and re-price their products Lifestyle - Lifestyle: a person’s pattern of living as expressed in their psychographics - Involves measuring consumers’ AIO dimensions – activities (work, hobbies, shopping, social events), interests (food, fashion, family, recreation), and opinions (about themselves, social issues, business, products) - Helps marketers understand consumer values in purchasing Personality and Self-Concept - Personality: unique psychological characteristics that distinguish a person or group - Described in terms of traits: self-confidence, sociability, autonomy, etc. - Brand Personality: specific mix of human traits that may be attributed to a particular brand - Five Brand Personality Traits Sincerity (down-to-earth, honest, cheerful) Excitement (daring, spirited, imaginative, up-to-date) Competence (reliable, intelligent, successful) Sophistication (upper class, charming) Ruggedness (outdoorsy, tough) - Self-Concept: people’s possessions contribute to and reflect their identities, “we are what we have” (ie. Mac vs. PC commercial) 4. Psychological Factors Motivation - Motive (Drive): a need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction of the need - Freud assumed that people are largely unconscious about the real psychological
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