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COMM 151
Ethan Pancer

Chapter 1  Organizations: social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort  Organizational behaviour: the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations  Sustained competitive advantage and organizational effectiveness are increasingly related to the management of human capital and organizational behaviour  Goals: predicting, explaining, and managing behaviour that occurs in organizations o Predicting: of the behaviour of others o Explaining: explain events in organizations o Management: the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others  Classical view point: an early prescription on management that advocated high specialization of labour, intensive coordination, and centralized decision making o 1900s o Military settings, mining operations and factories  Scientific Management: Frederick Taylor’s system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks o by the rules – written instruction o “functional foremanship” – supervisors specialization  Bureaucracy: Max Weber’s ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, and selection and promotion based on technical competence  Hawthorn studies: Research conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric near Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment  Human relations movement: a critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee needs o Strict specialization incompatible with human needs for growth o Strong centralization often fail to take advantage of created ideas and knowledge of lower members o Strict impressionable rules suppress achievement above and beyond o Strong specialization causes employee to lose sight of goals of organization  which leadership style is most effective is dependent on the situation  Contingency approach: an approach to management that recognizes that there is no one best way to manage, and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation Formal Authority and Status Informattional Roles Interpersonal Roles Decsional Roles Monitor Figurehead Entrepreneur Disseminator Disturbance handler Leader Spokesperson Liasons Resource alllocatro Negotiator  Interpersonal Roles: expected behaviours that have to do with establishing and maintaining interpersonal relations o Figurehead role: managers serve as symbols of their organization o Leadership role: managers select, mentor, reward, and discipline employees o Liaison role: managers maintain horizontal contracts inside and outside the organization  Informational Roles: roles concerned with the various ways managers receive and transmit information o Monitor role: managers scan the internal and external environments of the firm to follow current performance and to keep themselves informed of the new ideas and trends o Disseminator role: managers send information on both facts and preferences to others o Spokesperson role: concerns mainly sending messages into the organization’s external environment  Decisional Roles: final set of managerial roles Mintzberg discussed deals with decision making o Entrepreneur role: managers turn problems and opportunities into plans for improved changes o Disturbance Handler role: managers deal with problems stemming from employee conflicts and address threats to resources and turf o Resource allocation role: managers decide how to deploy time, money, personnel, and other critical resources o Negotiator role: managers conduct major negotiations with other organizations and individuals  Routine communication: formal sending of information and the handling of paperwork  Traditional management: planning, decision making, and controlling primarily  Networking: interacting with people outside of the organization and informal socializing and politicking with insiders  Human Resource management: motivating and reinforcing, disciplining, and punishing, managing conflict, staffing, and training and developing employees Manegerial Activities Exchanging Information Handeling Paperwork Planning Decision Making Controlling Interacting with Outsiders Socializing/Policking Training/Developing Staffing Motivating/Reinforcing Managing Conflict  Agenda Setting: Kotter’s managers agendas of what they want to accomplish for organization  Networking: Kotter’s managers established a wide formal and informal network of key people both inside and outside of their organization  Agenda Implementation: managers used networks to implement the agendas  Intuition important in managers  International business has different behavioural requirements  Quality, speed and flexibility (hypercompetitive): involvement, commitment, and teamwork needed from employees  Talent Management: an organization’s processes for attracting, developing, retaining, and utilizing people with the required skills to meet current and future business needs  Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): An organization taking responsibility for the impact of its decisions and actions on its stakeholders Chapter 5  Motivation: the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal o Effort o Persistence o Direction o Goal  Intrinsic motivation: motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task; it is usually self-applied  Extrinsic motivation: motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually applied by others  Self-determination theory: a theory of motivation that considers whether people’s motivation is autonomous or controlled  Autonomous motivation: when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors  Controlled motivation: when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic reward •General cognitive ability •emtotional Amont of effort intelligence Persistence of effort Motivation Performance Direction of effort •personality •task •chance •understanding  Performance: the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization o General cognitive ability: a person’s basic information processing capacities and cognitive resources o Emotional intelligence: the ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions emotions, emotional Managing emotions Perceiveing emotions accuratUsing emotions to language, and the so as to attain specific in oneself and others facilitate thinking signals conveyed by goals emotions  Need theories: motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance NEEDS → BEHAVIOUR →INCENTIVES AND GOALS Higher Maslow’s Need Alderfer’s ERG Intrinsic order Hierarchy Theory Motivation needs Self-actualization Growth Self-esteem Belongingness Relatedness Basic Safety Extrinsic Needs Physiological Existence Motivation  Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs: a five-level hierarchical need theory of motivation that specifies that the lowest-level unsatisfied need has the greatest motivating potential  ERG theory: a three-level theory of motivation (existence, relatedness, growth) that allows for movement up and down the hierarchy  McClelland’s Theory of needs: a non-hierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation o Need of achievement: a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well o Need for affiliation: a strong desire to establish and maintain friendly compatible interpersonal relationships o Need for power: a strong desire to influence others, making a significant impact or impression  Process theories: motivation theories that specify the details of how motivation occurs  Expectancy theory: a process theory that states that motivation is determined by the outcomes that people expect to occur as a result of their actions on the job  Outcomes: consequences that follow work behaviour  Instrumentality: the probability that a particular first-level outcome will be followed by a particular second-level outcome  Valence: the expected value of work outcomes: the extent to which they are attractive or unattractive the valence of a particular = Ʃ instrumentalities X second-level valences first level outcome  Expectancy: the probability that a particular first-level outcome can be achieved  Force: the effort directed toward a first-level outcome Force = first-level valence X expectancy First-Level Outcomes Second-Level (expectancy) Outcomes (instrumental) Money Valence Sense of Accomplishment Valence HigValencectivity Peer Acceptance Valence Force? Fatigue Valence Average Productivity (same as above) Valence expectancy = .3 Instrumentality = .6 Instrumentality = .3 Instrumentality = .2 expectancy = 1.0 Instrumentality = .1 Pay Raise High valence = 5 proformance Prmotion Valence = 7 force? Pay Raise Valence = 5 Average Performance Prmotion Valence = 7  Equity theory: a process theory that states that motivation stems from a comparison of the inputs one invests in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or group  Goal: the object or aim of an action  Goal setting theory: a process theory that states that goals are motivational when they are specific, challenging, and when organizational members are committed to them and feedback about progress toward goal attainment is provided Goals: Mechanisms: Specific Direction Challenge Effort Performance Goal commitment Persistence Feedback Task strategies  Goal orientation: an individual’s goal preferences in achievement situations  Learning goal orientation: a preference to learn new things and develop competence in an activity by acquiring new skills and mastering new situations  Performance-prove goal orientation: a preference to obtain favorable judgements about the outcome of one’s performance  Performance-avoid goal orientation: a preference to avoid negative judgments about the outcome of one’s performance  Distal goal: long-term or end goals  Proximal goal: short-term pr sub-goals  See diagram text book page 170 Chapter 5  Price-rate: a pay system in which individual workers are paid a certain sum of money for each unit of production completed  Wage incentive plans: various systems that link pay to performance on production jobs o Lowered quality o Differential opportunity o Reduced Cooperation o Incompatible Job Design  Restriction of productivity: the artificial limitation of work output that can occur under wage incentive plans  Merit pay plans: systems that attempt to link pay to performance on white-collar jobs  Lump sum bonus: merit pay that is awarded in a single payment and not built into base pay Actual Pay Managers Estimate Manger’s Boss $ Underestimates Boss’s Pay $ Overestimates Peers’ Pay Manager’s Average Peer $ $ Overestimates Subordinates’ Pay Manager’s Average Subordinate $  Profit sharing: the return of some company profit to employees in the form of a cash bonus or a retirement supplement  Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs): Incentive plans that allow employees to own a set amount of a company’s shares and provide employees with a stake in the company’s future earnings and success  Gainsharing: a group pay incentive plan based on productivity or performance improvements over which the workforce has some control  Skill-based pay: a system in which people are paid according to the number of job skills they have acquired  Job scope: the breadth and depth of a job  Breadth: the number of different activities performed on a job  Depth: the degree of discretion or control a worker has over how work tasks are performed High Quality Control Manager Equipment Professor Monitoring Job Depth Low Traditional Assembly line Assembly line job Utility worker Low High Job Breadth  Job rotation: rotating employees to different tasks and jobs in an organization  Skill variety: the opportunity to do a variety of job activities using various skills and talents  Autonomy: the freedom to schedule one’s own work activities and decide work procedures  Task significance: the impact that a job has on other people  Task Identity: the extent to which a job involves doing a complete piece of work, from beginning to end Critical Core job Psychological characteristics Outcomes states Skill Variety High Internal work Experienced Meaninfulness of the motivation Task Identity Work HSatisfaction Task Significance ExOutcomes of the worklity for High General Job Autonomy Knowledge of the Actual results of Satisfaction Feedback from Job the Work Activities High work Effectiveness Moderators: 1. Knowledge and Skill 2. Growth Need Strength 3. "Context" Satisfaction  Feedback: information about the effectiveness of one’s work performance Motivating potential score = x autonomy x job feedback  Growth need strength: the extent to which people desire to achieve higher-order need satisfaction by performing their jobs  Job enrichment: the design of jobs to enhance intrinsic motivation, quality of working life, and job involvemen
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