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Chapter 1

COMM 151 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Human Relations Movement, Henry Mintzberg, Human Resource Management


Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 151
Professor
Christopher Miners
Chapter
1

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1
CHAPTER 1
WHAT ARE ORGANIZATIONS?
Social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort
Social Inventions
Essential characteristic: has coordinated people, not things
The people present the opportunities and challenges
OB is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively
Goal Accomplishment
People are put into organizations for a reason
OB is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change
Behaviours needed for survival and adaptation; people need to be:
o Motivated to join and remain in the organization
o Carry out their basic work reliably, in terms of productivity, quality and service
o Be willing to learn and upgrade their knowledge and skills
o Be flexible and innovative
Group Effort
Organizations are based on a group effort\they depend in interactions and coordination
Most of the intellectual and physical work is done by groups
There can be permanent work teams or short term project teams
Informal grouping when friendships develop and there are informal groups for work
o The quality of this informal contact in terms of communication and morale can have a strong impact on
goal achievement
OB is concerned with how to get people to practise effective teamwork
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
Refers to the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations
Studies these attributes and behaviours and provides insight about effectively managing and changing them
How organizations can be structured more effectively
Interested in attitudes hoe satisfied people are with their job, how committed they feel about goals, how
supportive they are of promoting woman and minors into management roles
Behaviours: conflict, cooperation’s, innovation, resignation, ethical lapses
WHY STUDY OB?
Interesting: It is about people and human nature
Important: need to know the behaviour of the company and people to succeed
Makes a difference: you need more than just technology and money to succeed
o What differentiates organizations is their workforce/human capital need to know how to manage
employees
o Sustained competitive advantage and organizational effectiveness are increasingly related to the
management of human capital
GOALS OF OB
Predicting organizational behaviour
o Through systematic study

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Explain organizational behaviour
o Explain why events occur in an organization
o Prediction does NOT mean the same thing as explanation
Accurate predictions lead to explanation
o Explains why some people are more or less determined, satisfied, motivated and prone to resign than
others
Particular behaviour can have multiple causes
o Turnover problem you need to find out why it is happening before you can fix it
Managing organizational behaviour
o Management the art of getting things accomplished in organizations
o Mangers acquire, allocate and use physical and human resources to accomplish goals
o If you can predict and explain behaviour then you should act on it and learn to manage it
Early Prescriptions Concerning Management
1. The classical view and bureaucracy
Most people were experiences managers or consultants who too k the time to write down their thoughts on
organizing
Occurred in the early 1990s
Classical viewpoint high specialization of labour, intensive coordination, and centralized decision making
o Got experience in military setting, mining operations, and factories
o Each department was to tend to its own affair, with centralized decision making from upper
management that provided the coordination
o To maintain control, the mangers had fairly few workers
Scientific Management using research to determine optimum degree of specialization and standardization of
work tasks
o Supported the development of written instructions that clearly defined work procedures
o Encouraged supervisors to standardize workers’ movements and breaks for max efficiency
Bureaucracy
This was an “ideal type” or theoretical model that would standardize behaviour in organizations and provide
workers with security and a sense of purpose
Everyone would have a fair chance of being promoted
o Strict chain of command report to single superior
o Selection and promotion based on impersonal technical skills
o Detailed rules, regulations, and procedures job gets done regardless of who worker is
o Strict specialization match duties with technical competence
o Centralized power top of organization
2. Human Relations Movement and Critique of Bureaucracy
Hawthorne studies study showing how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work
adjustment
o Resistance to management through strong informal group mechanisms
Human relations movement management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee
needs
It addressed certain problems:
o Strict specialization this is incompatible with human needs for growth and achievement, can lead to
employee alienation from organization and clients
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