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Chapter 5

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Queen's University
COMM 151
Christopher Miners

CHAPTER 5 WHY STUDY MOTIVATION  Requirements for flexibility and attention to customers necessitate higher levels of initiative  Initiative depends on motivation  Several theories with different purposes  Some are self-motivated, some are externally motivated  Motivation often affected by how people see others treated WHAT IS MOTIVATION  The extent to which persistent effort is dedicated toward a goal CHARACTERISTICS OF MOTIVATION 1. EFFORT  The strength of the persons work-related behaviour  Amount of effort the person exhibits on the job 2. PERSISTENCE  They have to be persistent in applying their effort  Don’t just give up after doing 1 hour of heavy work 3. DIRECTION  Quality of work  Do workers use effort and persistence in a direction that benefits the organization  Work smart as well as working hard 4. GOALS  All motivated behaviour has some goal or objective  Motivated people act to enhance objectives  People can also be motivated by goals to do something wrong – embezzlement or sabotage EXTRINSIC and INTRINSIC MOTIVATION 1. EXTRINSIC - CONTROLLED  Stems from the work environment EXTERNAL to the task  Applied by someone other than the person being motivated  Ex: pay, fringe benefits, company policies, forms of supervision 2. INTRINSIC - AUTONOMOUS  Stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task – INTERNAL  Ex: feeling of acheievment, accomplishment, challenge, competence derived from performing task  Off the job, sports and hobbies are instrinsically motivated 3. SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY  You need both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation – they relate to each other  They both use the self-determination theory (SDT) o This explains what motivates people and whether motivation is autonomous or controlled  Autonomous: when people are motivated by intrinsic factors o They are in control of their motivation  Controlled: when people are motivated to obtain a desired outcome or extrinsic reward o Their motivation is controlled externally  Studies show: o Extrinsic motivation can reduce the intrinsic motivation o When extrinsic rewards depend on performance, motivating potential of intrinsic rewards decreases  This makes people feel less competent and less in control of their own behaviour  They come to believe that their performance is controlled by the environment and they are only performing well because of the outcome/reward that they are going to get o BUT this was proven to only happen in select situations MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE  Performance: the extent to which a person contributes to achieving the objectives of the organization  Contribution to performance: personality, cognitive ability, task understanding, emotional intelligence, chance  Intelegence: yes, relates to performance o AKA mental ability o There are 2 types of intelligence – cognitive ability AND emotional ability 1. COGNATIVE ABILITY o Intellegence or mental ability o A person’s basic info processing capacities and cognitive resources o Overall capacity and efficiency for processing info o Includes: verbal, numerical, spatial, and reasoning abilities – all needed to perform mental tasks o Studies show:  It predicts learning and training success as well as job performance  Cognitive ability and motivation are necessary for performance 2. EDUCATION: o Predicts job performance – important indicator of intelligence o A study looked at 3 types of performance:  Core task performance: basic required duties of a job  Citizenship performance: extra behaviours engages by employees that promote the strength of the business  Counterproductive performance: voluntary behaviours that harm wellbeing of company o More education = more core and citizenship, less counterproductive 3. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE o Ability to understand and mange one’s own and other’s feelings and emotions o They are able to control their emotions for problem solving, reasoning, thinking and action o Strongly related to job performance for jobs that require emotional labour o Most important for job performance of employees with lower cognitive ability o Less important for job performance of employees with high cognitive ability – don’t need EI if smart o EI MODEL: has 4 hierarchical sets of skills 1. Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others – accurately identify emotions in faces and non-verbal behaviour 2. Using emotions to facilitate thinking – use and assimilate emotions to guide and facilitate thinking and reasoning ; be able to shift and generate emotions to see from a different perspective 3. Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions – understand emotional information, the determinants and consequences of emotions, and how emotions evolve and change  Understanding how different situations generate emotions and how everyone is influenced by emotions 4. Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals as to – manage one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions as well as emotional relationships  Regulate, adjust, and change emotions to suit the situation  To be effective, be able to perceive emotions, integrate and assimilate emotions, and be knowledgeable of and understand emotions  Ex: being able to stay calm when feeling angry, being able to excite others NEED THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION  Need Theories: motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the conditions under which they will satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance  Needs are physiological and psychological wants/desires  They are satisfied by behaviour which is stimulated by acquisition process below  Are concerned with WHAT motivates workers (needs and their associated goals)  They can be constructed with process theories – that explain HOW various factors motivate people Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:  General theory of human motivation  Humans have 5 set needs that are arranged in a hierarchy o Begining with the most basic and compelling l 1. Physiological needs – needs to survive o Food, water shelter o Organizational factors that satisfy needs: minimum wage and proper working conditions 2. Safety needs – needs for security, stability, freedom from anxiety, structured environment o Organizations factors: safe working conditions, fair and sensible rules, job security, pension/insurance plans, play above minimum wage needed to survive 3. Belongingness needs – social interactions, affection, love, companionship, friendship o Organizational factors: opportunity to interact with others on the job, friendly/supportive supervision, teamwork, new social relationships 4. Esteem needs – competence, independence, strength, and confidence o AND the appreciation and recognition of all this by others o Organizational factors: opportunity to master tasks leading to feelings of achievement and responsibility o ALSO, awars, promotions, prestige job titles, professional recognition 5. Self-actualization needs – the desire to develop one’s true potential o AND to express skills, talents, emotions in a way that is personally fulfilling o Self-actulization people have clear perception of reality, accept themselves/others, are independent, creative and appreciative of the world around them o Organizations factors: absorbing jobs with the potential of creativity/growth AND relation of structure to permit self-development and personal progression  Lowest-level unsatisfied has greatest motivation potential o Eg. Basic needs need to be satisfied before they move onto higher needs  When a need is not satisfied, you are motivated to make it satisfied  Unsatisfied need has powerful effect on thinking and behaviour  Satisfied need is no longer an effective motivator o Once you accomplish something, you move on to the next level – you DON’T stay motivated to keep getting better at thing you already accomplished o EXCEPTION: Self-actualization – because this “growth” need gets stronger as they are gratified Alderfer’s ERG Theory:  Compression of Maslow’s theory – existence, relatedness, and growth needs  Three-level hierarchical need theory of motivation that allows for movement up and down the hierarchy 1. Existence needs – needs satisfied by material substance or conditionee o Corresponds to Maslow’s physiological needs and safety needs that are satisfied by marierial conditions rather than interpersonal relationship o EX: need for food, shelter, pay and safe work conditions 2. Relatedness needs – needs satisfied by communication and exchange of thoughts and feelings with workers o Corresponds to Maslow’s belongingness needs and the esteem needs that involve feedback from others o These needs are satisfied by: open, accurate, honest interaction rather than uncritical pleasantness 3. Growth needs – involve full utililization of one’s skills and abilities and the creative development of skills/abilities o Satisfied by: strong personal involvement in the work setting o Correspond to Maslow’s self-actualization and the aspects of esteem needs that concern acheievment and responsibility  As lower level needs are satisfied, you are more motivated to achieve higher level nees o As existence needs are fulfilled, the desire to hae hgher level needs will increase o As more “concrete” needs are satisfied, energy can be directed toward satisfying “less concrete” needs  UNLIKE MASLOW: o ERG theory doesNOT assume that a lower-level needs must be satisfied before a less concrete need  THUS, he doesn’t propose a rigid hierarchy of needs  ERG accounts for people with different motive structures – you don’t have to finish the bottom to move to top  If higher-level needs are not satisfied, you will desire the gratification at lower-level needs o Maslow doesn’t agree*  Ex: if a worker isn’t getting the attentions he wants from supervisors, he will direct his attention away from the social aspects and try to get an increase in pay  2 major motivational premises: 1. The more lower-level needs are gratified, the more higher-level need satisfaction is desired  The less higher-level needs are gratified, the more lower-level need satisfaction is desired McClelland’s Theory of Needs  This theory reflects stable personality characteristics that one acquires through early life experiences and exposure to select aspects of society  Non-hierarchical need theory  Outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation o The behavioural consequences of needs  Under what conditions do needs result in motivation? There are THREE needs: 1. Need for achievement (n Ach) – strong desire to perform challenging tasks well o Preference for situations in which personal responsibility can be taken for outcomes – don’t like when outcomes are determined by chance because then it doesn’t reflect how much better you are than others o Tendency to set moderately difficult goals that provide for calculated risks – easy goals provide little achievement; and hard goals may never bet achieved…SO set goals in the middle o Desire for performance feedback – helps modify goal attainment strategies to ensure success and signals when success reached  Basically, being better than others at something, and for intrinsically satisfying reasons o These people are concerned with bettering their own performance or others  Concerned with innovation and long-term goal achievement  They don’t do think to satisfy others, but instead for intrinsic purposes o Motivated by sales jobs or entrepreneurial positions 2. Need for affiliation (n Aff) – strong desire to establish and maintain friendly, compatible interpersonal relationships o They want to like others, and they want others to like them o Learn social networking quickly, Communicate frequently with others, Avoid conflict and competition, Strong conformity to the wishes of friends o Need for belongingness and relatedness o Motivated by social work or customer relations 3. Need for power (n Pow) – strong desire to influence others, making a significant impact/impression o Seek out social settings in which they can be influential o When in small groups – they act in a “high-profile” (attention getting manner) o Advocate risky positions and how a strong concern for personal prestige o Needs for power is complex because power can be used in variety of way  Some serve the power-seeker and others serve the organization o Corresponds closely to Maslow’s esteem need o Motivated by management positions Research support for need theories: 1. Maslow’s need hierarchy theory o His predictions show a weak relationship o Due to: rigidity of the theory – which suggest that most people experience the same needs at the same hierarchical order o BUT: there is fair support for a similar two-level hierarchy compromising needs towards top and bottom 2. Alderfer’s ERG theory o Fairly good support for the predictions o Confirmed: the frustration of relatedness needs increases the strength of existence needs o Simplicity and flexibility of this theory better meets the need structure 3. McClelland’s need theory o Results are generally supportive of his theory and the idea that particular needs are motivational when the work setting permits the satisfaction of these needs Management Implications of Need Theories 1. Appreciate diversity – managers must be
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