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Chapter 2

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COMM 151
Christopher Miners

Chapter 2 – Personality and Learning  Learning must be continuous and lifelong  Behaviour is function of personality What Is Personality?  Personality – relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influence way an individual interacts with his/her environment Personality and Organizational Behaviour  “Dispositional approach” – person  “Situational approach” – situation  “Person-situation debate” – both  “Interactionist approach” or “Interactionism” – both interacting  Personality matters most in weak situation (eg. New volunteer group)  Personality matters least in strong situation (eg. Military) Five-Factor Model of Personality  Extraversion – outgoing vs. shy  Emotional stability – stable vs. anxious  Agreeableness – cooperative vs. rude  Conscientiousness – responsible vs. impulsive o High conscientious best predictor for business performance  Openness to experience – original vs. unimaginative Locus of Control – set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces  Internal – control of your behaviour inside yourself  External – outside forces determine your behaviour Self-Monitoring – extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships  High – observe and control image to fit in. Good for “acting” jobs (eg. Sales, lawyer)  Low – not concerned about fitting in Self-Esteem – degree to which person has positive self-evaluation  High – favourable. Doesn’t care about social approval. Organizations benefit from high  Low – unfavourable. Seek social approval  Behaviour plasticity theory – low self-esteem are more pliable than high Recent Developments in Personality and Organizational Behaviour  Positive affectivity – view world, yourself and others, in positive light. Happy people  Negative affectivity – view world, yourself and others, in negative light. Depressed people  Proactive personality – taking initiative to improve current situation or create new one. Influence environment  General self-efficacy (GSE) – trait referring to your belief about your ability to perform successfully. Motivational trait (belief you can succeed motivates you to act) o Develop based on repeated success/failure  Core self-evaluations – evaluating yourself and your worthiness based on self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability What Is Learning?  Learning – relatively permanent change in behaviour potential due to practice or experience  Environment gives feedback concerning consequences of behaviour  What? – practical skills, intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, and cultural awareness Practical skills – competence. Can do job Intrapersonal skills – problem solving, critical thinking, learning new ways to do something, and risk taking Interpersonal skills – interacting with others Cultural awareness – learning social norms of organization Operant Learning Theory – learn to operate on environment to get something Increasing the Probability of Behaviour  Reinforcer – stimuli strengthen behaviour Positive Reinforcement – increase/maintain behaviour by application or addition of stimulus to situation (eg. Laugh at stupid jokes, person will make more stupid jokes) Negative Reinforcement – increase/maintain behaviour by removal of stimulus (eg. Meet deadlines to stop nagging) Organizational Errors Involving Reinforcement  Confusing rewards with reinforcers – rewards should be contingent on behaviours that are of interest to organization (eg. Bonus for top sales)  Neglecting diversity in preferences for reinforcers – individuals are different so they want different rewards (eg. Luxe provides tanning bed. Peter doesn’t want to tan)  Neglecting important sources of reinforcement o Performance feedback – quantitative or qualitative feedback on past performance for purpose of changing or maintaining performance in specific ways.  Positive manner  Delivered immediately after  Represent visually (graph, chart)  Specific to behaviour o Social recognition – informal acknowledgement for work well done from individual or group to another Reinforcement Strategies Strategy Effect Frequency of Delay of Reinforcement Reinforcement Continuous Short Fast acquisition Partial Long Persistence  Continuous + Short = say good job every time employee on time. As soon as you stop this, employee will stop being on ti
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