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Chapter 7

OB - Chapter 7.docx

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COMM 151
Christopher Miners

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Chapter 7 – Groups and Teamwork What is a group?  A group consists of two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal.  Formal work groups- o Groups that organizations establish to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals.  Informal groups- o Groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members Group Development Some groups go through a series of development stages (Exhibit 7.1,page 219) 1. Forming- 2. Storming-Conflict, confrontation and criticism occur 3. Norming- members resolve the issues that provoked storming and develop social consesus 4. Performing- with its social structure sorted out, the group devotes its energies toward task accomplishment 5. Adjourning- (Party time) rites and rituals that affirm the group’s pervious successful development are common. Punctuated equilibrium model stress; 1. Phase 1 a. a first meeting- assumptions, approaches and precedents members develop in the first meeting dominate till the first half of the groups life is over. b. a period of little apparent progress 2. Midpoint Transition a. Occurs exactly the halfway point in time b. Marks a change in the group’s approach c. Crystallizes the groups activities for phase 2 3. Phase 2 a. Concludes with a final meeting that reveals a burst of activity and a concern of how outsiders will evaluate the product. b. Look at exhibit 7.2, page 220. Group Structure and Its Consequences Group Size  As groups get bigger, they provide less opportunity for members’ satisfaction. o When tasks are additive or disjunctive, larger groups should perform better then smaller groups if the group can avoid process losses, due to poor communication and motivation.  Additive Groups –Performance depends on the addition of individual effort  Disjunctive- performance depends on that of the best member.  Process losses-performance difficulties that stem from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups. o When tasks are conjunctive, performance decreases as the group gets bigger,  Conjunctive Groups- performance is limited by the weakest member o Diverse groups will generally develop at a slower pace and be less cohesive than homogeneous groups.  While the effects of surface-level demographic diversity can wear off over time, deep diversity differences regarding attitudes are more difficult to overcome. Norms  Norms are expectations that group members have about each other’s behavior.  They provide consistency to behavior and develop as a function of shared attitudes.  In organizations, both formal and informal norms often develop to control dress, reward allocation, and performance. o Dress norms- social norms that dictate the kind of clothing people wear to work. o Reward allocation norms- 4 ways check page 224 o Performance norms- the appropriate level of performance. Roles  Roles are positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviors associated with them. o Role ambiguity refers to a lack of clarity of job goals or methods. o Certain elements that can lead to ambiguity (Exhibit 7.4, page 226);  Organizational factors- some roles seem inherently ambiguous because of their function in the organization  Role Sender- weak orientation session, vague performance reviews or inconsistent feedback and discipline may send ambiguous role messages to employees.  Focal person- Ambiguity tends to decrease as length of time in the job role increases o Role conflict exists when an individual is faced with incompatible role expectations, and it can take four forms;  Intrasender- occurs when a single role sender provides incompatible role expectations to the role of a occupant  Intersender- If two or more role senders differ in their expectation for a role
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