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Week 11 Notes

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COMM 151
Christopher Miners

Week 11 Notes Chapter 8– Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture Social Influence on Others  Occurs because we are dependent on others Information Dependence and Effect Dependence  Information Dependence: reliance on others for how to think, act, feel  Rely on others to make sure we display adequate behaviour  Effect Dependence: reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment  Managers use promotions, unfavourable tasks; co-workers us friendship, nagging Social Influencein Action Motives for Social Conformity  Compliance: conformity in order to acquire rewards and avoid punishment, individual doesn’t actually subscribe to beliefs, values, attitudes associated with norm  Identification: conformity because of an aspiration to model yourself after someone similar to you and admirable  Internalization: conformity because you truly believe values and attitudes associated with norms are right The Subtle Power of Compliance  A compliant individual is doing something contrary to what they think or feel  Reduce dissonance by not conforming, or slowly accepting values  Compliance may act as the first step towards organizational socialization through identification and internalization Organizational Socialization  Socialization: process where individual learns attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour  Must acquire knowledge and skills to perform tasks, appropriate behaviour for roles, norms and values for their work group, and history and traditions of the organization  Socialization ultimately helps employees understand, reducing role ambiguity  Person-Job Fit: match between employees’ knowledge, skills, and abilities and their jobs requirements  Person-Organization Fit: match between employees personal values and organizational values  Ongoing process, but most prominent with any significant changes (getting hired, promotion) Stages of Socialization  Before entering a new position, anticipatory socialization occurs. May be formal (university) or informal (TV shows, media) and could be instituted by organization itself. May not always be helpful  Encounter: expectations met with reality, employee starts conforming to norms, learning if there’s a good fit, and may adopt identifying with members  Role Management: actively managing and fine-tuning role in the organization to better serve it, must balance work and non-work roles, and individual may start to internalize norms Unrealistic Expectations and the Psychological Contract  Everyone hold expectations before entering a new job, but these aren’t always met; higher met expectations lead to higher satisfaction and performance  Unrealistically high expectations result of media and some job promoters  Psychosocial Contract: beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations between them and their organization (hard work = promotion)  Psychological Contract Breach: employee perception that their organization failed to uphold obligations  Results in feelings of betrayal and mistrust, has negative effect on attitudes and work behaviour  Causes may be overzealous job promotion to attract best candidates, downsizing, or unrealistic employee expectations due to lack of info  Contract breaches less prominent when organizational socialization is high, but promote accurate beliefs before and after employee enters organization Methods of Organizational Socialization  Some organizations rely on external socialization (companies and business schools) while others don’t (military)  Socialization differs by who does it, how it’s done, and how much Realistic Job Previews  When expectations not met, “reality shock” occurs, leading to high turnover  Realistic Job Preview: provision of a realistic picture of positive and negative aspects of a job  Job previews use the ideas from people currently working in the organization (booklets, DVDs, interviews)  Turnover rate decreases, general satisfaction increases, due to self-selections Employee Orientation Programs  Employee Orientation Programs: introduces employees to their job, people they’ll be working with, and organization  ROPES (Realistic Orientation Program for Entry Stress) teaches candidates about stress they’ll encounter and how to deal with it  Orientation programs increase socialization and long-lasting commitment to the organization Socialization Tactics  Socialization Tactics: manner in which organizational structures the early work experiences of newcomers and those in transition  Collective vs. Individual: group orientation, or individual and more custom-tailored  Formal vs. Informal: segregating newcomers and providing formal learning experience, or relying on on-the-job training  Sequential vs. Random: fixed set of steps to socialization, or random order  Fixed vs. Disjunctive: experienced members act as models, or they don’t put effort into showing them the ropes  Investiture vs. Divestiture: affirming incoming identity, or stripping it away and hazing (tests commitment)  Institutionalized vs. Individualized Socialization o Institutionalized: collective, formal, sequential, fixed serial, investitive; encourages members to accept organizational norms o Individualized promotes ambiguity, gets new hires to develop their own approach to the role  Context (collective, formal), content (sequential, fixed), and social (serial, investiture)  Institutionalized promotes loyalty and uniformity  Individualized lets new hires take on style of those mentoring them  Institutionalized always followed by some individualized  Serial-disjunctive and investiture-divestiture are most influential in socialization outcomes Mentoring  Mentor: experienced member who gives a junior special attention; giving advice and creating opportunities to assist their development  Career Functions o Sponsorship: advantageous transfers and promotions o Exposure & Visibility: opportunities to work with key individuals o Coaching & Feedback: suggest strategies, identify strengths and weaknesses o Developmental Assignment: challenging work  Psychological Functions o Role Modeling: attitudes, values, behaviours o Acceptance & Confirmation: helps self-confidence o Counselling: discuss anxiety concerning career prospects, work-life, etc.  Mentoring may occur either informally or formally  Females have a harder time with mentorship: most high-up individuals are men; they may not know how to treat new hire properly as a mentor and both may be worried about appearances (suggested intimacy)  Mentoring more important to women than to men  Mentoring programs and networking now being developed in large institutions to help women get over road-blocks  Race also has an effect, cross-racial mentorships generally more focused on career than psychological, these must rely more on co-workers for social support Proactive Socialization  Proactive Socialization: newcomers play an active role in socialization through certain behaviours o General Socializing, office events o Boss relationship building o Networking o Feedback-seeking o Information-seeking o Observation o Behavioural self-management: self-observation, goal setting, reward, and rehearsal o Relationship building o Job change negotiations (to increase fit) o Involvement in work-related activities (“extra-curricular) o Career enhancement strategies (varied and additional work) o Informal mentor relationship  More positive socialization, high satisfaction, performance, commitment, lower intentions to quit and lower stress Organizational Culture What is Organizational Culture?  Organizational Culture: shared beliefs, values, and assumptions that exist in an organization  Culture is a “way of life,” its fairly stable, may be different internally and externally, and has a strong impact on performance and satisfaction  Subcultures: mini cultures based on differences in training, occupation, or departmental goals The “Strong Culture” Concept  Strong Culture: intense and pervasive beliefs, values and assumptions, cutting across subcultures  Small organizations can have strong cultures, blind conformity is not necessarily present, and it’s associated with success Assets of Strong Cultures  Coordination across departments and throughout hierarchy  Conflict Resolution: basis of understanding, methods of dealing with conflicts (procedures)  Financial Success: o Values emphasizing interpersonal relationships have less turnover, potentially saving millions o Contributes to financial success when the culture supports the mission, strategy, and goals Liabilities of Strong Cultures  Resistance to Change: a problem when goals shift as a result of changing situations  Culture Clash: mergers and acquisitions may prove to be unsuccessful and ultimately unprofitable  Pathology: cultures may present problems when they’re inherently bad; supporting infighting, secrecy, paranoia, or risk-taking and overconfidence Contributors to the Culture  Founder generally set the tone for the whole business  The CEO’s focus strongly influences culture; if they feel diversity is important, and organization will adopt and reflect this  Strong culture promote structured socialization o Selecting employees: emphasis on fit o Debasement and Hazing: opening for norms o Training in the Trenches: getting into lower positions to acquire an appreciation for the business o Rewards and Promotion: for those who support organizational goals o Exposure to Core Cultures: guidance of behaviour o Organizational Folklore: stories reinforcing culture o Role Models  The consistency of these steps marks a strong culture Diagnosing a Culture  Symbols: communicates culture; sitting in a tatty chair while talking about cutting costs  Rituals: “beer busts” every Friday reflect a work hard, play hard culture  Stories: communicate “how things work.” Common themes are: is the boss human and how will they react to mistakes? Can the little person rise to the top? Will I get fired? Will the organization help me if I have to move? How well does the organization deal with obstacles? Chapter 9Notes – Leadership What is Leadership?  Leadership: influence individuals exert on the goal achievement of other in an organizational context  Enhances productivity, innovation satisfaction, and commitment to the work force  Strategic Leadership: ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that create a viable future for the organization  Leadership may be formal or informal, but people in positions of power generally have a greater influence  Not all formal leaders successfully practice leadership AreLeaders Born?The Search for Leadership Traits Research on Leadership Traits  Traits: individual characteristics like physical attributes intellectual ability, and personality  Some traits associated with leadership: intelligence, energy, self-confidence, dominance, motivation to lead, emotional stability, honesty and integrity, need for achievement  Agreeableness, extraversion, and openness to experience also linked to leadership Limitations of the Trait Approach  Does the trait precede the opportunity, or does the opportunity create the trait?  We can’t always be sure why and how these traits are successfully associated with leadership  Situation must also be taken into account, changing crucial characteristics  Traits are only one factor to leadership TheBehaviour of Leaders Consideration and Initiating Structure  Consideration: extent to which a leader is approachable and shows concern and respect for employees  Initiating Structure: degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment  These traits are independent of each other The Consequences of Consideration and Structure  Both lead to higher motivation, job satisfaction, and leader effectivene
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