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Chapter 1

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COMM 151
Christopher Miners

Chapter 1: Organizational Behavior and Management What are Organizations? Organizations: are social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort. Social Inventions Social inventions: the coordinated presence of people not necessarily things OB: is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively Goal Accomplishment - OB is the field concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change Behaviors Necessary for Survival - Be motivated to join and remain in the organization - Carry out their basic work reliably, in terms of productivity, quality and service - Be willing to continuously learn and upgrade their knowledge and skills - Be flexible and innovative Management Guru Tom Peters: “Get innovative or Get Dead” Group Effort - Organizations are also based on group effort - Group Effort: means that organizations depend on interaction and coordination among people to accomplish their goals - The field of OB is concerned with how to get people to practice effective teamwork What is Organizational Behavior? Organizational Behavior: refers to the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations - Also studies how organizations can be structured more effectively and how events in their external environments affect organizations Important Question: What are the factors that make an organization the great place to work? Why Study Organizational Behavior? OB is Interesting - Is about people and human nature - It provides interesting examples of success and failures OB is Important - The events within an organization significantly affects people - OB is important to managers, employees, and consumers, and understanding it can make us more effective managers, employees or consumers - Concerned with explaining the variations in people in business to improve organizational effectiveness & efficiency OB Makes a Difference - Does OB matter for an organization’s competitiveness and performance? - Sustained competitive advantage are increasingly related to the management of human capital and OB - Interesting question: are the companies with good management and practices of OB most successful and profitable? Goals of OB - Effectively predicting, explaining and managing behavior that occurs in a organization Predicting OB - Predicting the behavior of others is an essential requirement for everyday life, both inside and outside of an organization - Organizations are very interested in predicting, when people make ethical decisions, create innovative products, and engage in sexual harassment - OB provides a scientific foundation that helps improve production of organizational events Explaining OB - Explaining why exactly invents happen in organizations - OB helps determine why people are more or less motivated, satisfied or prone to resign - Difficult to predict or understand the causes to any problem Managing OB Management: the art of getting things accomplished in an organization through others - Managers acquire, utilize, and allocate physical and human resources to accomplish goals - If behavior can be predicted and explain, it can be controlled or managed Early Prescriptions Concerning Management Classical View and Bureaucracy - Promoters of the classical viewpoint were generally experienced managers or consultants who wrote down their thoughts of an organization - Prominent names Henry Fayol, GM’s James Mooney, consultant Lyndal Urwick - Classical Viewpoint: generally considered high degree of labor specialization and high degree of coordination - Frederick Taylor, “Father of Scientific Management” - Concerned with job design and structure of work on job floor - Taylor advocated the use of careful research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization - He also supported the development of written instructions that clearly defined work procedures - Taylor encouraged supervisors to standardize workers’ movements and breaks for maximum efficiency - Supervisors would “Functional Foremanship” meaning specialization in particular functions - Max Weber (1864-1920), German Social Theorists - Bureaucracy is a means of rationally managing complex organizations - Bureaucracy (Formal Definition): is an organization with a strict chain of command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, and selection and promotion based on technical competence. - Weber wanted an “ideal type” that would standardize behavior in organizations and provide workers with security and a sense of purpose The Human Relations Movement and a Critique of Bureaucracy - Hawthorne Studies: research conducted at the Hawthorne plant of western electric near Chicago in the 1920’s and 1930s that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment - Human Relations Movement: A critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated mgmt. styles that were more normal Problems of Bureaucracy - Strict specialization is incompatible with human needs for growth and achievement - Strong centralization and reliance on formal authority often fail to take advantages of the creative ideas and knowledge of lower-level members, who are often closer to the customer Leads to businesses failing to learn from mistakes, which threatens innovation and adaptation - Strict impersonal rules lead members to adopt the minimum acceptable level of performance that the rules specified - Strong specialization causes employees to lose sight of the overall goals of the organization Contemporary Management – The Contingency Approach - The classical advocates pointed out the critical role of control and coordination in getting organizations to achieve their goals. The human relations people pointed out at the dangers of certain forms of control and coordination and addressed the need for flexibility and adaptability - Ex. Pay increase leads to increased performance  this depends on the person and reason for the increase The Contingency Approach: An approach to management that recognizes that there is no best way to manage, and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation. What Do Managers Do? Managerial Roles (Mintzberg) Interpersonal Roles - Interpersonal roles are expected behaviors that have to do with establishing and maintaining interpersonal roles - Figurehead Roles: managers serve as symbols of their organization rather than active decision-makers - Leadership Roles: Manager’s select, mentor, reward, and discipline employees. - Liaison Role: Managers maintain horizontal contacts inside and outside the organization Informational Roles - These rules are concerned with the various ways managers receive and transmit information - Monitor Role: managers scan the internal and external environme
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