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Chapter 1

COMM 151 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Baby Boomers, Politicking With Larry King, Absenteeism


Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 151
Professor
Christopher Miners
Chapter
1

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COMM 151 Chapter 1 Notes- Organizational Behaviour and Management
What are Organizations
Organizations: Social Inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort
Social Inventions
Coordinated presence of people not necessarily things (equipment)
OB is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively
Goal Accomplishments
OB is concerned with how organizations survive and adapt to change
Behaviours Necessary for Survival and Adaption
Motivated to join/remain in the organization
Carry out basic work reliably in terms of productivity, quality and service
Willing to learn and upgrade knowledge and skills
Flexible and Innovative
Group Effort
Org’s depend on interaction and coordination among people to accomplish goals
Most of the intellectual and physical work is accomplished in groups
Whether they are permanent or project-based groups
Informal grouping occurs in all org’s because friendships develop and people
form informal alliances to accomplish work
The quality of this contact in terms of communication and moral can have
a strong impact on goal achievement
OB is concerned with how to get people to practice effective teamwork
What is Organizational Behaviour
Organizational Behaviour: The attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in
organizations
OB systematically studies these attitudes and behaviours and provides insight about
effectively managing and changing them
Interested in the attitudes how satisfied are people, how committed, how cooperative
Also studies how org’s can be structured more effectively and how events in external in
environments affect organizations
Ex. How satisfied people are with their jobs, how committed are they to org’s goals
Goals of Organizational Behaviour
Predicting OB: Want to be able to predict the future behaviours of people
Explaining OB: Why do events in orgs occur? Why are people more/less motivated, satisfied, etc
Explaining event is hard because there may be multiple causes
Managing OB: Management is defined as the art of getting things accomplished in
organizations through others
Acquire, allocate, and utilize physical and human resources effectively
This definition does not include how to get things accomplished because there are a
variety of mgmt. styles that might be effective depending on the situation at hand

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COMM 151 Chapter 1 Notes- Organizational Behaviour and Management
Early Prescriptions Concerning Management
For many years, experts were interested in “correct” way to manage an org to achieve its goals
Classical Viewpoint: An early prescription of management that advocated high
specialization of labour, intensive coordination, and centralized decision making
Each department tends to their own affairs
Centralized decision making from upper mgmt.
To maintain control, mangers had few workers. except lower-level jobs where
machine pacing might substitute for close supervision
Scientific Management: Frederick Taylor’s system for using research to determine the
optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks
Taylor supported the development of written instructions and clearly defined
work procedures, and he encouraged supervisors to standardized workers’
movements and breaks for max efficiency
Bureaucracy: Maxx Weber’s ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of
command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, and selection and
promotion based on technical competence
Provide workers with a sense of security and purpose everyone has equal
chance to get promoted based on their technical skills
Jobs preformed as intended not following the “whims” of specific role occupant
Fair chance of being promoted and rising in the power structure
Rules, regulations, and clear-cut chain of command that further clarified required
behavior and provided the workers with a sense of security
Human Relations Movement: A critique of classical mgmt. and bureaucracy that promoted
management styles that more participative and oriented towards employee needs mgmt. style
changed to become more people oriented
The critique of bureaucracy addressed several specific problems
Strict/strong specialization leads to employee alienation from the organization & clients
Incompatible to growth and achievement
Lose sight of the overall goals of the org “red-tape” mentality
Strong Centralization= reliance on formal authority rather than lower lvl members input
Fail to learn from mistakes, threatens innovation and adaption
Strict Impersonal Rules= employees adopt the minimum acceptable performance
Hawthorne Studies: Illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and
work adjustment
Studies the effects of interventions on performance
Ex. Dysfunctional aspects to how work was organized when employees resisted
management
Contemporary Management-Contingency Approach
Contingency Approach: Approach that management recognizes that
there’s no one best way to manage
appropriate management style depends on the situation
Mostly
advocated by
experienced
managers or
consultants
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