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Chapter 2

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Department
Commerce
Course
COMM 151
Professor
Christopher Miners
Semester
Winter

Description
COMM 151 – Chapter 2 Notes – Personality and Learning Personality  Personality: The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment  Characteristics on which people differ and how they deal with the world  Characteristics that are relatively stable across situations and over time  Personality Tests ( which were proved useless) popular in the 1950’s and 1960’s  Known as dispositional approach since it focuses on individual dispositions & personality  This approach stated that individuals are predisposed to behave in certain ways  Now the Situational Approach is used to find factors in a work environment to explain organizational behavior  Factors (rewards, punishments, people’s feelings) affect attitudes and behaviours  Job satisfaction is determined by situational factors such as characteristics of work tasks  “Interactionalist” approach states that OB is a combination of the two  To predict behaviour, you must know the person’s personality and their job setting  Personality has the most impact in a weak situation since there are few rules, weak rewarding…  In strong situations w. defined roles, rules & reward contingencies, personality has less impact  No personality is “the best” – The advantages of employee diversity is putting the right person in the right job, group or organization Personality Traits: Five Factor Model “Big Five” (ES>C>EV>A for Job Satisfaction)  Extraversion  How outgoing or shy the person is  High extraverts enjoy social situations, low extraverts avoid them  Important for jobs that require a lot of interpersonal interaction  Emotional Stability  Degree of appropriate emotional control  Low neuroticism have high emotional stability since they are self-confident and have high self-esteem  They have effective interactions with co-workers and customers since they are more calm and secure  Lower emotional stability (high neuroticism) self-doubt  Job performance with high neuroticism is likely to suffer  Agreeableness  The extent to which people are friendly and approachable  More likely to contribute to job performance in jobs that require interaction and involve helping, cooperation, and teamwork  Conscientiousness  The degree to which a person is responsible and achievement orientated  Perform well on jobs given their tendency towards hard work and achievement  less conscientiousness people are lazy and impulsive  Openness To Experience  The extent to which a person thinks flexibility and remains receptive to new ideas  More open people tend to be more creative and innovative 1 COMM 151 – Chapter 2 Notes – Personality and Learning  People who are high on openness to experience do well in jobs that involve learning and creativity since they are intellectual, curious, and imaginative  Related to absenteeism and work motivation  Openness to experience is NOT related to job satisfaction  Strongest predictor of job satisfaction was neuroticism  Higher neuroticism was associated with lower job satisfaction  High extraversion, conscientiousness, & agreeableness associated w. high job satisfaction  High conscientiousness, extraversion, and low neuroticism associated with a higher income and occupational success  The five traits are independent  having high lvl in one doesn’t mean a high/low lvl in another Locus of Control  Locus of Control: A set of beliefs about whether one’s behavior is controlled mainly by internal or external forces  Ppl w. high internal locus of control believe work behavior will influence rewards they achieve  take advantage of information that will enable them to perform effectively  In control of what happens to them – stronger link between their effort and performance  Satisfied with jobs, earn more money and higher organization positions  Seem to perceive less stress, to cope with stress better, and to engage in career planning Self- Monitoring and Self Esteem  Self-Monitoring: The extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships  Low Self Monitors use their own attitudes and beliefs to guide their own behaviours  Ex. Donald Trump  High Self Monitors use social cues to guide their own behaviour  Ex. Social Chameleons  High self-monitors gravitate toward jobs requiring role-playing & self-presentation skills  In certain jobs, the ability to adapt to one’s clients is critical – good for High S-M  Likely to feel uncomfortable in ambiguous social settings and dealing with unfamiliar cultures – More prone to stress, difficulty resisting social pressure  Perform well in jobs that call for adaptiveness/flexibility  Self-Esteem: The degree to which a person has positive self-evaluation  Behavioural plasticity theory: People with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high self-esteem  more likely to look for others for information, seek social approval in actions  ex. of interactionism in that the effect of the work environment on people’s beliefs and actions is partly a function of their self-esteem  If external causes are the responsible for performance problem this should be made very clear and only direct criticism at the performance never at the person  Organizations should avoid creating a culture with excessive and petty work rules that signal to employees that are incompetent or untrustworthy 2 COMM 151 – Chapter 2 Notes – Personality and Learning Recent Developments in Personality and Organizational Behaviour  Positive Affectivity: The tendency to experience positive emotions and moods, view world and oneself in a positive light, tend to be cheerful, enthusiastic  Both (↕) can influence people’s emotions and mood states at work and influence job attitudes and work behavior – also tend to have more workplace stress  High PA report a higher job satisfaction and job performance, more creative  Negative Affectivity: Negative emotions and moods, view the world and oneself negatively  Proactive Behaviour: Taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones and challenging the status quo rather than passively adapting to present conditions  Proactive personality: A stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal initiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s life  Related to job performance, tolerance for stress, leadership effectiveness, teamwork...  High performance evaluations since they develop strong supportive networks  More likely to find a job, receive higher salaries and frequent promotions  Those who are not proactive endure the environment rather than change it  General Self Efficacy (GSE) : an individual’s belief in their ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations  Considered a motivational trait than a affective since it relates to how the individual can succeed the variety of the tasks rather than how they feel about themselves  Based on successes and failures  if you have many successes in your life, have high GSE  Core Self Evaluations: evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth  Made up of self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability  Positive self-evaluations have higher job satisfaction and job performance  More likely to perceive their jobs as interesting, significant, and autonomous, less stress  See their jobs as intrinsically satisfying and more likely to have complex jobs What is Learning?  Learning occurs when practice or experience leads to a relatively permanent change in behaviour potential  Learning Content in Organizations (PIIC) a. Practical Skills  Include new job specific skills, knowledge and technical competence  Keeps organization competitive  Constant improvement to performance b. Intrapersonal Skills  Problem solving skills, critical thinking, risk taking c. Interpersonal Skills  Interactive skills such as communicating, teamwork, and conflict resolution d. Cultural Awareness  Learning social norms of organizations  Understanding company goals, business operations, and company expectations  Operant Learning: Learning by which the subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences 3 COMM 151 – Chapter 2 Notes – Personality and Learning  Ex. Sales person learning an effective sales technique to achieve commission and avoid criticisms from managers  Behaviour is controlled by the consequences that follow it  Can be used to increase the probability of desired behaviors and reduce/eliminate probability of undesirable behaviour Increasing the Probability of Behaviour  Positive Reinforcement: The application or addition of a stimulus that increases or maintains the probability of some behaviour  specifies which behaviours are appropriate  Stimulus is a positive reinforce to continue a certain behaviour or performance  Positive reinforcers tend to be pleasant things ( food, money, business success)  Negative Reinforcement: The removal of a stimulus from the situation in question (e
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