Textbook Notes (368,117)
Canada (161,660)
Commerce (596)
COMM 151 (65)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

COMM 151
Christopher Miners

COMM 151 – Chapter 2 Notes – Personality and Learning Personality  Personality: The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment  Characteristics on which people differ and how they deal with the world  Characteristics that are relatively stable across situations and over time  Personality Tests ( which were proved useless) popular in the 1950’s and 1960’s  Known as dispositional approach since it focuses on individual dispositions & personality  This approach stated that individuals are predisposed to behave in certain ways  Now the Situational Approach is used to find factors in a work environment to explain organizational behavior  Factors (rewards, punishments, people’s feelings) affect attitudes and behaviours  Job satisfaction is determined by situational factors such as characteristics of work tasks  “Interactionalist” approach states that OB is a combination of the two  To predict behaviour, you must know the person’s personality and their job setting  Personality has the most impact in a weak situation since there are few rules, weak rewarding…  In strong situations w. defined roles, rules & reward contingencies, personality has less impact  No personality is “the best” – The advantages of employee diversity is putting the right person in the right job, group or organization Personality Traits: Five Factor Model “Big Five” (ES>C>EV>A for Job Satisfaction)  Extraversion  How outgoing or shy the person is  High extraverts enjoy social situations, low extraverts avoid them  Important for jobs that require a lot of interpersonal interaction  Emotional Stability  Degree of appropriate emotional control  Low neuroticism have high emotional stability since they are self-confident and have high self-esteem  They have effective interactions with co-workers and customers since they are more calm and secure  Lower emotional stability (high neuroticism) self-doubt  Job performance with high neuroticism is likely to suffer  Agreeableness  The extent to which people are friendly and approachable  More likely to contribute to job performance in jobs that require interaction and involve helping, cooperation, and teamwork  Conscientiousness  The degree to which a person is responsible and achievement orientated  Perform well on jobs given their tendency towards hard work and achievement  less conscientiousness people are lazy and impulsive  Openness To Experience  The extent to which a person thinks flexibility and remains receptive to new ideas  More open people tend to be more creative and innovative 1 COMM 151 – Chapter 2 Notes – Personality and Learning  People who are high on openness to experience do well in jobs that involve learning and creativity since they are intellectual, curious, and imaginative  Related to absenteeism and work motivation  Openness to experience is NOT related to job satisfaction  Strongest predictor of job satisfaction was neuroticism  Higher neuroticism was associated with lower job satisfaction  High extraversion, conscientiousness, & agreeableness associated w. high job satisfaction  High conscientiousness, extraversion, and low neuroticism associated with a higher income and occupational success  The five traits are independent  having high lvl in one doesn’t mean a high/low lvl in another Locus of Control  Locus of Control: A set of beliefs about whether one’s behavior is controlled mainly by internal or external forces  Ppl w. high internal locus of control believe work behavior will influence rewards they achieve  take advantage of information that will enable them to perform effectively  In control of what happens to them – stronger link between their effort and performance  Satisfied with jobs, earn more money and higher organization positions  Seem to perceive less stress, to cope with stress better, and to engage in career planning Self- Monitoring and Self Esteem  Self-Monitoring: The extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships  Low Self Monitors use their own attitudes and beliefs to guide their own behaviours  Ex. Donald Trump  High Self Monitors use social cues to guide their own behaviour  Ex. Social Chameleons  High self-monitors gravitate toward jobs requiring role-playing & self-presentation skills  In certain jobs, the ability to adapt to one’s clients is critical – good for High S-M  Likely to feel uncomfortable in ambiguous social settings and dealing with unfamiliar cultures – More prone to stress, difficulty resisting social pressure  Perform well in jobs that call for adaptiveness/flexibility  Self-Esteem: The degree to which a person has positive self-evaluation  Behavioural plasticity theory: People with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high self-esteem  more likely to look for others for information, seek social approval in actions  ex. of interactionism in that the effect of the work environment on people’s beliefs and actions is partly a function of their self-esteem  If external causes are the responsible for performance problem this should be made very clear and only direct criticism at the performance never at the person  Organizations should avoid creating a culture with excessive and petty work rules that signal to employees that are incompetent or untrustworthy 2 COMM 151 – Chapter 2 Notes – Personality and Learning Recent Developments in Personality and Organizational Behaviour  Positive Affectivity: The tendency to experience positive emotions and moods, view world and oneself in a positive light, tend to be cheerful, enthusiastic  Both (↕) can influence people’s emotions and mood states at work and influence job attitudes and work behavior – also tend to have more workplace stress  High PA report a higher job satisfaction and job performance, more creative  Negative Affectivity: Negative emotions and moods, view the world and oneself negatively  Proactive Behaviour: Taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new ones and challenging the status quo rather than passively adapting to present conditions  Proactive personality: A stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take personal initiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s life  Related to job performance, tolerance for stress, leadership effectiveness, teamwork...  High performance evaluations since they develop strong supportive networks  More likely to find a job, receive higher salaries and frequent promotions  Those who are not proactive endure the environment rather than change it  General Self Efficacy (GSE) : an individual’s belief in their ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations  Considered a motivational trait than a affective since it relates to how the individual can succeed the variety of the tasks rather than how they feel about themselves  Based on successes and failures  if you have many successes in your life, have high GSE  Core Self Evaluations: evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth  Made up of self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability  Positive self-evaluations have higher job satisfaction and job performance  More likely to perceive their jobs as interesting, significant, and autonomous, less stress  See their jobs as intrinsically satisfying and more likely to have complex jobs What is Learning?  Learning occurs when practice or experience leads to a relatively permanent change in behaviour potential  Learning Content in Organizations (PIIC) a. Practical Skills  Include new job specific skills, knowledge and technical competence  Keeps organization competitive  Constant improvement to performance b. Intrapersonal Skills  Problem solving skills, critical thinking, risk taking c. Interpersonal Skills  Interactive skills such as communicating, teamwork, and conflict resolution d. Cultural Awareness  Learning social norms of organizations  Understanding company goals, business operations, and company expectations  Operant Learning: Learning by which the subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences 3 COMM 151 – Chapter 2 Notes – Personality and Learning  Ex. Sales person learning an effective sales technique to achieve commission and avoid criticisms from managers  Behaviour is controlled by the consequences that follow it  Can be used to increase the probability of desired behaviors and reduce/eliminate probability of undesirable behaviour Increasing the Probability of Behaviour  Positive Reinforcement: The application or addition of a stimulus that increases or maintains the probability of some behaviour  specifies which behaviours are appropriate  Stimulus is a positive reinforce to continue a certain behaviour or performance  Positive reinforcers tend to be pleasant things ( food, money, business success)  Negative Reinforcement: The removal of a stimulus from the situation in question (e
More Less

Related notes for COMM 151

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.