Textbook Notes (369,072)
Canada (162,367)
Commerce (596)
COMM 151 (65)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8.docx

7 Pages

Course Code
COMM 151
Christopher Miners

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 7 pages of the document.
COMM 151 – Chapter 8 Notes – Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture Social Influence in Organizations  Information Dependence and Effect Dependence  Depend on others for information about adequacy and appropriateness of our behaviour, thoughts, and feelings  Information Dependence: Reliance on others for information about how to feel, act, and think  Individuals motivated to compare their own thoughts , feelings, and actions with those of others as a means of acquiring information about their adequacy  Effects of social information very strong more influence over others as objective reality  Sensitive to rewards and punishments the group has its disposal  Effect Dependence: Reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishments  Group frequently vested interest in how individual members thin and act because it affects the goal attainment of the group  Member frequently desires the approval of the group  Promote effect dependence  Managers typically have a fairy array of rewards and punishments available including promotion, raises  Informal level :Reward cooperative behaviour with a praise, friendship and helping on the job  Lack of cooperating results in nagging or harassment Social Influence in Action  Many effects on which group members are dependent are oriented toward enforcing group norms  Motives for Social Conformity  Compliance: Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment  Individual adjusts his or her behaviour to the norm  He or she does not really subscribe to the beliefs  Ex. Young children behave themselves only because of external forces  Identification: Conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself  Individual identifies with these supporters and see themselves as similar to them  Revealed by an imitation process which established members serves as models for behaviour  Internalization: Prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm  Conformity is duet he internal rather than extern forces  Ex. Army officer might come to support the strict discipline of the military because it seems right and proper not because colleagues support such discipline COMM 151 – Chapter 8 Notes – Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture  Subtle Power of Compliance  Doubting group member is motivated to conform only in the compliance mode  He or she really does not support the belief, value, and attitude structure underlying the norm but conforms simply to avoid trouble or obtain rewards  Compliant individual is necessarily doing something that is contrary to they thinks or feels  Reduce the dissonance to cease conformity  Require the person to adopt an isolated or scapegoat role which are equally unpleasant prospects  Reducing dissonance is gradually accepting beliefs, values and attitudes that support in the norm in question Organization Socialization  Socialization: The process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour, that are necessary to function in a group or organization  Shows how different social methods (ex. Employee orientation programs) influence a number of immediate or proximal socialization outcomes such as learning which lead to more distal or long term outcomes such as attitudes (ex. Job satisfaction) and behaviour (ex. Turnover)  Learning during socialization described in terms of content areas or domain of learning: task, role, group and organization domain  Task: acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to perform their job duties  Role: learn appropriate behaviors and expectations  Work Group: learn the norms and values  Organization: learn the history, traditions, language, politics, and culture  Newcomers can master their tasks and integrate with others in their group and the organization  Person-job fit: The match between an employee’s knowledge, skills, and abilities and the requirements of a job  Persona-organization fit: Match between an employee’s personal values and values of an organization  Primary goals Organizational Identification: The extent to which an individual defines him or herself in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent  Stages of Socialization  Anticipatory Socialization  Formal process of skill and attitude acquisition which will be acquired by attending university  Encounter  Orientation programs and rotation through various parts of the organization  Role Management  Fine tuning actively managing their role in the organization  Modify the role to better serve the organization  Conform balancing the now-familiar organization role with non-work roles and COMM 151 – Chapter 8 Notes – Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture family demands  Unrealistic Expectations and Psychological Contract  Unrealistic Expectations  New members have unrealistic expectations about organizations they join  Occupational stereotypes, media communicates such stereotypes such as idea about doctor life through watching the show Greys Anatomy  Psychological Contract: Beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises between them and their organization  Employee might expect to receive bonuses and promotions in return for hard work and loyalty  Psychological Contract Breach: Employee perceptions that his/her organization has failed to fulfill one or more of its promises or obligations of the psychological contract  Impact of psychological contract is related to affective reactions, higher feelings of contract violation and mistrust towards management, work attitudes, and work behaviors,  Lower organizational citizenship behaviour and job performance  Newcomers often lack sufficient information to form accurate perceptions concerning their psychological contract  Important that newcomers develop accurate perceptions in the formation of psychological contract  Less likely in organizations where socialization is intense Methods of Organizational Socialization  Organizations that handle their own socialization interested in maintain the continuity and stability of job behaviors over a period of time  Those that rely on external agencies to perform anticipatory socialization are orientated towards maintaining the potential for creative, innovative behaviour on the part of members there is less inbreeding  Organizations rely heavily on external socialization always supplement it with formal training and orientation or informal on the job training  Organizations differ in terms of who does the socializing how it is done, how much is done  can control those generated during the recruitment process by use job applicants with realistic job previews  Realistic Job Previews: The provision of a balanced, realistic picture of the positive and negative aspects of a job to applicants  Use simulations to permit applicants to actually sample the work  Research Evidence  Less clear is exactly why turnover reduction occurs  Effective in reducing inflating expectations and turnover and improving job performance  Providing realistic job previews can also help prevent perceptions of psychological contract breach  Employees Orientation Program  Programs designed to introduce new employees to their job, the people they will be COMM 151 – Chapter 8 Notes – Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture working with, and the organization  Begin conveying and forming the psychological contract and tend to tech newcomers how to cope with stressful work situations  ROPES: helps new comers cope with stress  Provides newcomer with realistic information, how to use cognitive and behaviour coping techniques to manage workplace stress  Research Evidence:  Employees who attend an orientation program were most socialized in terms of their knowledge and understanding of the organizations goals and values, history, and involvement with people  Reported higher organizational commitment compared to employees who did not attend the orientation program  Socialization Tactics: The manner in with organization structure the early work experience of newcomers and individuals who are in transition from one role to another  Collective vs. Individual Tactics  Number of new members are socialized as a group, going through the same experiences and facing the same challenges  Individual tactic consists of socialization experiences that are tailor-made for each new member  Formal vs. Informal Tactics  Segregating new comers form regular organizational members and providing them with formal learning experiences during the period of socialization  Informal tactics do not distinguish a newcomer from more experienced members and rely more on informal and on the job learning  Sequential vs. Rando
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.