Textbook Notes (369,072)
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COMM 151 (65)
Chapter 8

Chapter 8.docx

7 Pages
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Department
Commerce
Course Code
COMM 151
Professor
Christopher Miners

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COMM 151 – Chapter 8 Notes – Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture Social Influence in Organizations  Information Dependence and Effect Dependence  Depend on others for information about adequacy and appropriateness of our behaviour, thoughts, and feelings  Information Dependence: Reliance on others for information about how to feel, act, and think  Individuals motivated to compare their own thoughts , feelings, and actions with those of others as a means of acquiring information about their adequacy  Effects of social information very strong more influence over others as objective reality  Sensitive to rewards and punishments the group has its disposal  Effect Dependence: Reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishments  Group frequently vested interest in how individual members thin and act because it affects the goal attainment of the group  Member frequently desires the approval of the group  Promote effect dependence  Managers typically have a fairy array of rewards and punishments available including promotion, raises  Informal level :Reward cooperative behaviour with a praise, friendship and helping on the job  Lack of cooperating results in nagging or harassment Social Influence in Action  Many effects on which group members are dependent are oriented toward enforcing group norms  Motives for Social Conformity  Compliance: Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment  Individual adjusts his or her behaviour to the norm  He or she does not really subscribe to the beliefs  Ex. Young children behave themselves only because of external forces  Identification: Conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself  Individual identifies with these supporters and see themselves as similar to them  Revealed by an imitation process which established members serves as models for behaviour  Internalization: Prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm  Conformity is duet he internal rather than extern forces  Ex. Army officer might come to support the strict discipline of the military because it seems right and proper not because colleagues support such discipline COMM 151 – Chapter 8 Notes – Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture  Subtle Power of Compliance  Doubting group member is motivated to conform only in the compliance mode  He or she really does not support the belief, value, and attitude structure underlying the norm but conforms simply to avoid trouble or obtain rewards  Compliant individual is necessarily doing something that is contrary to they thinks or feels  Reduce the dissonance to cease conformity  Require the person to adopt an isolated or scapegoat role which are equally unpleasant prospects  Reducing dissonance is gradually accepting beliefs, values and attitudes that support in the norm in question Organization Socialization  Socialization: The process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviour, that are necessary to function in a group or organization  Shows how different social methods (ex. Employee orientation programs) influence a number of immediate or proximal socialization outcomes such as learning which lead to more distal or long term outcomes such as attitudes (ex. Job satisfaction) and behaviour (ex. Turnover)  Learning during socialization described in terms of content areas or domain of learning: task, role, group and organization domain  Task: acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to perform their job duties  Role: learn appropriate behaviors and expectations  Work Group: learn the norms and values  Organization: learn the history, traditions, language, politics, and culture  Newcomers can master their tasks and integrate with others in their group and the organization  Person-job fit: The match between an employee’s knowledge, skills, and abilities and the requirements of a job  Persona-organization fit: Match between an employee’s personal values and values of an organization  Primary goals Organizational Identification: The extent to which an individual defines him or herself in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent  Stages of Socialization  Anticipatory Socialization  Formal process of skill and attitude acquisition which will be acquired by attending university  Encounter  Orientation programs and rotation through various parts of the organization  Role Management  Fine tuning actively managing their role in the organization  Modify the role to better serve the organization  Conform balancing the now-familiar organization role with non-work roles and COMM 151 – Chapter 8 Notes – Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture family demands  Unrealistic Expectations and Psychological Contract  Unrealistic Expectations  New members have unrealistic expectations about organizations they join  Occupational stereotypes, media communicates such stereotypes such as idea about doctor life through watching the show Greys Anatomy  Psychological Contract: Beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises between them and their organization  Employee might expect to receive bonuses and promotions in return for hard work and loyalty  Psychological Contract Breach: Employee perceptions that his/her organization has failed to fulfill one or more of its promises or obligations of the psychological contract  Impact of psychological contract is related to affective reactions, higher feelings of contract violation and mistrust towards management, work attitudes, and work behaviors,  Lower organizational citizenship behaviour and job performance  Newcomers often lack sufficient information to form accurate perceptions concerning their psychological contract  Important that newcomers develop accurate perceptions in the formation of psychological contract  Less likely in organizations where socialization is intense Methods of Organizational Socialization  Organizations that handle their own socialization interested in maintain the continuity and stability of job behaviors over a period of time  Those that rely on external agencies to perform anticipatory socialization are orientated towards maintaining the potential for creative, innovative behaviour on the part of members there is less inbreeding  Organizations rely heavily on external socialization always supplement it with formal training and orientation or informal on the job training  Organizations differ in terms of who does the socializing how it is done, how much is done  can control those generated during the recruitment process by use job applicants with realistic job previews  Realistic Job Previews: The provision of a balanced, realistic picture of the positive and negative aspects of a job to applicants  Use simulations to permit applicants to actually sample the work  Research Evidence  Less clear is exactly why turnover reduction occurs  Effective in reducing inflating expectations and turnover and improving job performance  Providing realistic job previews can also help prevent perceptions of psychological contract breach  Employees Orientation Program  Programs designed to introduce new employees to their job, the people they will be COMM 151 – Chapter 8 Notes – Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture working with, and the organization  Begin conveying and forming the psychological contract and tend to tech newcomers how to cope with stressful work situations  ROPES: helps new comers cope with stress  Provides newcomer with realistic information, how to use cognitive and behaviour coping techniques to manage workplace stress  Research Evidence:  Employees who attend an orientation program were most socialized in terms of their knowledge and understanding of the organizations goals and values, history, and involvement with people  Reported higher organizational commitment compared to employees who did not attend the orientation program  Socialization Tactics: The manner in with organization structure the early work experience of newcomers and individuals who are in transition from one role to another  Collective vs. Individual Tactics  Number of new members are socialized as a group, going through the same experiences and facing the same challenges  Individual tactic consists of socialization experiences that are tailor-made for each new member  Formal vs. Informal Tactics  Segregating new comers form regular organizational members and providing them with formal learning experiences during the period of socialization  Informal tactics do not distinguish a newcomer from more experienced members and rely more on informal and on the job learning  Sequential vs. Rando
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