Textbook Notes (362,882)
Canada (158,081)
Commerce (580)
COMM 151 (54)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9.docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

Queen's University
COMM 151
Christopher Miners

COMM 151 – Chapter 9 - Leadership What is Leadership?  Leadership: The influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context  Strategic Leadership: Leadership that involves the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the organization Are Leaders Born? The Search for Leadership Traits  Research on Leadership Traits  Traits: Individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability, and personality  Three of the big five dimensions of personality (agreeableness, extraversion, and openness to experience) are related to a leadership behaviours  Prominent firms use personality tests and assessment centres to measure leadership traits when making hiring and promotion decisions  Limitations of the Trait Approach  Difficult to determine whether traits make the leader or whether the opportunity for leadership produces the traits  Traits alone are note sufficient for successful leadership  Only preconditions for certain actions that a leader must take to be successful The Behaviour of Leaders  Trait approach is concerned with what leaders bring to a group setting  Limitations of this approach gradually promoted an interest in what leaders do in group settings  Behaviours of certain group members that caused them to become leaders  Particular leadership style that is more effective than other possible styles?  Consideration and Initiating Structures  Consideration: The extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and respect for employees  Initiating Structure: The degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment  Clearly defines and organizes their role and roles of followers, stresses standard procedures, schedules the work to be done and assigns employees to particular tasks  Consideration and initiating structure are not incompatible a leader could be high/low/average on one/both dimensions  The Consequences of Consideration and Structure  Strongly related to follower satisfaction COMM 151 – Chapter 9 - Leadership  Initiating structure is slightly more related to leader job performance and group performance  When employees are under a high degree of pressure due to deadlines initiating structure increases satisfaction and performance  Tasks is intrinsically satisfying the need for high consideration and high structure is generally reduced  Goals and methods of performing the job are unclear and certain, consideration should promote employee satisfaction while structure might promote dissatisfaction  Employee lacks knowledge as to how to perform a job  Leader Reward and Punishment Behaviours  Leader Reward Behaviour: The leaders use of compliments, tangible benefits, and deserved special treatment  Rewards mare made contingent on performance, employees should perform at a high level and experience job satisfaction  Punishment is extremely difficult to use effectively when it is perceived as random and not contingent on employee behaviour, employees react negatively with great dissatisfaction  Contingent leader reward behaviour was found to be positively related to employees perceptions ex. Trust in supervisors  More favourable employee perceptions  Non contingent punishment was related to unfavourable outcomes  Relationships stronger when rewards and punishments were made contingent on employee behaviour  Manner in which leaders administer rewards and punishments is a critical determinant of their effectiveness  Key to effect reward: administered contingent on employee behaviour and performance  Leader Punishment Behaviours: The leader of use of reprimands or unfavourable task assignments and the active withholding rewards Situational Theories of Leadership  Effectiveness of a leadership is contingent on the setting  Characteristics of the employees, the nature of the task they are performing, and characteristics of the organization  Fiddlers Contingency Theory and Cognitive Resource Theory  Contingency Theory: Association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for exerting influence  Situational Favourableness  Leader-Member relations  Relationship between the leader and the group members is good the leader is in a favourable situation to exert influence  Poor relationship should damage the leader’s influence can lead to COMM 151 – Chapter 9 - Leadership sabotage  Task structure  Position Power  Research Evidence  Most favourable for leadership when leader-member relations are good the task is structure and the leader has strong position power  Cognitive Resource Theory  Leadership theory that focuses on the conditions in which a leader’s cognitive resources (intelligence, expertise, and experience) contribute to effective leadership  Effectiveness depends on directiveness of the leader  House Path-Goal Theory:  situations under which various leadership behaviours (directive, supportive, participative, achievement-orientated) are most effective  Leader Behaviour  Directive Behaviour:  schedule work, maintain performance and let employees know what is expected of them  Identical to initiating structure  Supportive Behaviour  Friendly, approachable and concerned with pleasant interpersonal relationships  Identical to consideration  Participative Behaviour  Consult with employees about work related matters and consider their opinions  Achievement-orientated Behaviour  Encourage employees to exert high an effort and strive for high level of goal accomplishment  Express confidence that employees can strive these goals  Situational Factors  High need achievers work well under achievement oriented leadership  Being told what to do should respond best to a directive leadership style  Low task abilities they should appreciate directive leadership and coaching behaviour  Tasks are clear and routine directive leadership redundant ant unnecessary  Tasks are challenging but ambiguous employees should appreciate both directive and participative leadership  Take advantage of motivating and satisfying aspects of jobs while offsetting or compensating for those jobs aspects that demotivate or dissatisfy  Research Evidence  Work better in predicting employee’s job satisfaction and acceptance of the leader than in predicting job performance COMM 151 – Chapter 9 - Leadership Participative Leadership: Involving Employees in Decisions  What is Participation?  Participation Leadership: Involving employees in making work-related decisions  Involve individual employees or the entire group of employees that reports to the leader  Potential Advantages of Participative Leadership  Motivation  Increases motivation  Increase intrinsic motivation by enriching employee’s jobs  Adds some variety to the job and promotes autonomy  Quality  Enhance quality  Special knowledge to contribute to the decision  Empower employees to take direct action to solve problems without checking every detail with the boss  Gives employees the authority, opportunity, and ovation to take the initiative and solve problems  Acceptance  Increases employees acceptance of decisions  Potential Problems of Participative Leadership  Time and Energy  Quick decision is needed participation is not an appropriate leadership strategy  Loss of Power  Reduce power and influence of leaders  Lack of Receptivity or Knowledge  Employees might not be receptive to participation if leader is distrusted  Vroom and Jago’s Situational Model of Participation  Quality requirements for a problem might be low if it is very unlikely that a technically bad decision could be made  Commitment requirement is likely to be high if employees are concerned about which alternative is chosen  Problem is structured when the leader understands the current situation, the desired situation, and how to get from one to the other  Research Evidence  Workers prefer a participative environment Leader- Member Exchange Theory  Focuses on quality of the relationships between a leader and an employee  Relationship based approach to leadership  Relationships will differ in terms of quality of the relationship  Research Evidence  High-quality relationships involve a high degree of mutual influence and obligation as COMM 151 – Chapter 9 - Leadership well as trust  Provide employees with challenging tasks and opportunities, greater latitude and discretion, task-related resources, and recognition  Transactional and Transformational Leadership  Involves contingent reward behaviour  Clarifies expectations and establishes reward for meeting them  Transactional leadership: Based on straightforward exchange relationship between the leader and the followers  Management by exception: Leadership that involves the leader taking corrective action on the basis of results of the leader follower transactions  follower behaviour anticipate problems and takes corrective actions before behaviour cr
More Less

Related notes for COMM 151

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.