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COMM 151 (65)
Chapter 13

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COMM 151
Christopher Miners

COMM 151 – Chapter 13 Notes (437-458) – Conflict and Stress A Model of Stress in Organizations  Stressors: Environmental events or conditions that have the potential to induce stress  Individual personality often determines the extent to which a potential stressor becomes a real stressor and actually induces stress  Stress: A psychological reaction to the demands inherent in as stressor that has the potential to make a person feel tense or anxious because the person does not feel capable of coping with these demands  Some responses, individuals have little control over  ex. low blood pressure  Stress reactions: The behavioral, psychological, and physiological consequences of stress  Organizations should be concerned with the stress employees undergo because an individual who is conveniently absent from work due to stress leaves the organizations shorthanded and provoking stress in others  Personality and Stress  Locus of Control: A set of beliefs about whether one’s behavior is controlled mainly by internal or external forces  Internals believe they control their own behavior  Externals believe their behavior is controlled by luck/fate  More likely to feel stress in the face of potential stressors  Type A behavior pattern: A personality pattern that includes aggressiveness, ambitiousness, competitiveness, hostility, impatience, and a sense of time urgency  Feel a great sense of time urgency and hostility is easily aroused  Have heavier workloads, longer work hours, more conflicting work demands  Reactions in response to stress include elevated blood pressure, elevated heart rate, and modified blood chemistry  Prompted by frustrating, difficult, or competitive events  Negative Affectivity: Propensity to view the world including oneself and other people in a negative light  Major component of the “big five” personality dimension neuroticism  High negative affectivity are more pessimistic and downbeat  There are several factors which cause high negative affectivity including  A predisposition to perceive stressors in the work place  Hypersensitivity to existing stressors  A tendency to gravitate to stressful jobs  Tendency to provoke stress through their negativity  Use of passive indirect coping styles that avoid the real sources of stress Stressors in Organizational Life  Executive and Managerial Stressors  Role Overload: This is the requirement for too many tasks to be performed in too short a time period  Mgmt. is an ongoing process and there are very few signposts to signify if that a task is complete and rest and relaxation are permitted  this often provokes a conflict between the employees role to the org, and their role to their family 1 COMM 151 – Chapter 13 Notes (437-458) – Conflict and Stress  Heavy Responsibility  Extremely important consequences for the organization and its members  Influence the future of others  Executive might have terminate an operation that could lay of many workers  All of the above has the power to act as a major stressor on a manager  Operative-Level Stressors  Poor Physical Working Conditions  Operative level employees are more likely to be exposed to physically unpleasant such as Excessive heat, cold, noise and the chance of accidents  special stressors  Poor Job Design  Monotony and boredom can prove extremely frustrating to people who feel capable of handling complex tasks  Job scope can be a stressor at levels that are either too loo/high  Boundary Role Stressors, Burnout, and Emotional Labour  Boundary Roles: Positions in which organizational members are required to interact with members of other organizations or with the public  Ex. Vice president of public relations responsible of representing company to public  Experience stress since they straddle between the imaginary boundary between the organization and its environment  A form of role conflict in which one’s role as an org member might be incompatible with the demands made by the public or other organizations  Burnout: A syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced self-efficacy  Most common in people who entered their jobs with high ideals – they want to “change the world” but become frustrated when they encounter the reality of clients  Burnout Stages 1. Emotional Exhaustion – fatigued, drained by work, frustrated 2. Depersonalization – become cynical and distance yourself from clients 3. Low Self-Efficacy and personal accomplishment  Ex. “I can’t do this anymore, I’m not helping them, I don’t understand them”  Treats employees like objects and lack of concerns what happens to them  Ex. Teachers  Some pursue a new occupation or stay in the same occupation but look for a new job  Others will stay and become “deadwood” – collect paycheques but do min work  Emotional labour  Suppression and acting takes a toll on cognitive and emotional resources over time  The Job Demands-Resources Model and Work Engagement  Work Engagement: A positive work related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption  Vigor involves high levels of energy and mental resilience at work  Dedication - strongly involved in your work & experiencing a sense of significance  Absorption refers to being fully concentrated on your work  Job Demands Resources Model: A model that specifies how job demands cause burnout and job resources cause engagement  Job demands are physical, psychological, social, org features that require 2 COMM 151 – Chapter 13 Notes (437-458) – Conflict and Stress sustained physical/psychological effort, resulting in physical/psychological costs  Job resources refers to features of a job that are functional in that they help achieve work and stimulate personal growth and learning and development  High job resources foster work engagement  High job demands exhaust employees physically + mentally → burnout  Jobs demands are related to burnout and health problems  Job resources lead to work engagement, organizational citizenship behavior and organizational commitment  Some General Stressors  Interpersonal Conflict  Likely to ca
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