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COMM 151 (65)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3.docx

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COMM 151
Christopher Miners

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Perception, Attribution, and Diversity COMM 151 – Chapter 3 What is Perception  Perception: The process of interpreting the messages of our sense to provide order and meaning to the environment  Helps sort out and organize complex and varied input received by our 5 senses  Base their actions on the interpretation of reality that their perceptual systems proves rather than reality itself Components of Perception  The Perceiver  Experience needs, and emotions that affect his or her perceptions of a target  Influences their impressions of a target is experiences  Lead the perceiver to develop expectations and these expectations affect current perceptions  Needs unconsciously influence our perceptions by causing us to perceive what we wish to perceive  Emotions such as anger, happiness, or fear can influence our perceptions  Perceptual Defence: The tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions  The Target  Involves interpretation and the addition of meaning to the target  Ambiguous targets are susceptible to interpretation  The Situation  Every instance of perception in some situational connect the context can affect what one perceives Social Identity Theory  A theory that states that people form perceptions of themselves based on their characteristics and memberships in social categories  Personal identity is based on our unique personal characteristics such as interests, abilities, and traits  Social identity is based on perceptions what we belong to various social groups such as gender, nationality, religion and occupation  Helps us understand how components of the perceptual system opeart in the formation of perceptions  Perceive people in terms of the attributes and characteristics that we associate with their social category relative to other categories  Perceptions of others is a function of how you categorize yourself (ex. Student) and your target (ex. Your professor) 1 Perception, Attribution, and Diversity COMM 151 – Chapter 3 Model of Perceptual Process  Perceiver encounters an unfamiliar target, perceiver is open to the informational cures contained in the target and the situation surrounding it  Unfamiliar state the perceiver needs information to which base perceptions of the target and will actively seek out cues to resolve this ambiguity  Searches out cues that conform the categorization of target  Perception is selective they do not use all available cues  those used are given special emphasizes  Our perception is efficient and this efficiency can aid/hinder our perceptual accuracy  Works to paint a constant picture of the target  Constancy refers to the tendency for the target to be perceived in the same way over time or across situations Basic Biases in Person Perception  Primacy and Recency Effects  Fast formation is to rely on cues that we encounter early in the relationship  Primacy Effect: The tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions  Worker who can favourable impress their boss on the first few days as in advantageous position due to primacy  Recency Effect: The tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions  Reliance on Central Traits  Central Traits: Personal characteristics of a target person that are a particular interest to a perceiver  Physical appearance is common trait related to variety of job –related outcomes  Attractive people are more likely to fare better than unattractive people in terms of a variety of job-related outcomes  Implicit Personality Theories  Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together  Expect hard working people to be also honest  Average intelligence to be friendly  Projection: Perceives to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others  Lead to perceptual differences  People with similar backgrounds or interest do think and feel similarly  Stereotypes: Cognitive schemas representing broad social categories as sex, race, age, and nationality  Stereotyping: Tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variations among them  Tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variations among them 2 Perception, Attribution, and Diversity COMM 151 – Chapter 3  Distinguish some category of people  Assume that individuals in this category have certain traits  Perceive everybody in this category possess these traits  Incorrect stereotypes help us process information about others quickly and efficiently  Power and Stereotypes  Perceptions  Lower power groups are seen as homogenous  Dependent on high power groups to get promotions hence you have to find out what they like and what they dislike  Get to know them better  Higher power groups seen as more heterogeneous  Issue of dependence more dependent on higher power groups to get things done,  Higher power groups have influence on your life which is why you don’t pay attention to low power group  Motivation  Self-Serving high power groups to propagate stereotypes since they preserve status quo so they are the primary beneficiary  Ability  (limited) contact and exposure  Because higher level executives mingle with their own kind even though there is more less power and less of high power  Persistence of Stereotypes  Stereotype: Women are emotional and dependent  Power Control, independence, confidence, and pride  Powerlessness no control, dependence, insecurity, and negative emotions  Women are not in as many leadership positions Attribution: Perceiving Causes and Moves  Attribution: Process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain people’s behaviour  Rewards and punishments in organizations are based on judgments about what really caused a target person to behave a certain way  Dispositional Attributes: Explanations for behaviour based on actor’s personality or intellect  Situational Attributes: Explanations for behaviour based on actors external situation or environment  Consistency Cues  Attribution cues that reflect how consistently a person engages in a behaviour over time  Tend to perceive behaviour that person performs regularly indicates of their 3 Perception, Attribution, and Diversity COMM 151 – Chapter 3 true motives  High consistence leads to dispositional attributions  Behaviours occurs inconsistently begin to consider situational attributions  Consensus Cues  Attribution cues that reflect how a person’s behaviour compares with that of others  Low consensus behaviour leads to more dispositional behaviour  Person who acts differently from the majority is seen as are revealing more of their motives  Distinctive Cues  Reflect the extent to which a person engage in some behaviour across a variety of situations  Behaviour occurs across a variety of situations it lacks distinctiveness and the observer is prone to provide a dispositional attribution about its cause  When a behaviour is highly distinctive in that it occurs only one situation awe are likely to assume that some aspect of the situation caused the behaviour  Attribution in Action  Combination of cues are likely to prompt a dispositional attribution  Combination of cues will usually result in a situational attribution  Combination of cues suggests that some temporary short term situational factor Biases in Attribution  Fundamental Attribution Error  The tendency is overemphasize dispositional explanations for behaviour at the expense of situational explanations  Various cues combinations and the resulting attributions have a sensible appearance  Often discount the strong effects that social roles have on behaviour  People whom we observe are seen as rather constrained  Dispositional explanations for poor performance will sometimes be made even when situational factors are the true cause  Actor-Observer Effect  The propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the actor’s behaviour differently  Particularity sensitive to those environmental events that led us to be late or absent  Observers of the same behaviour in others are more likely invoke dispositional causes  Self-Serving Bias  People have a tendency to take credit and responsibility for successful outcomes  Deny credit and responsibility for failures  Take credit for successful outcomes and to deny responsibility for failures 4 Perception, Attribution, and Diversity COMM 151 – Chapter 3  Suggests that people will explain the very same behaviour differently on the basis of events that happened after the behaviour occurred  Well on exam  dispositional attribution  Situational causes performed poorly Person Perception and Workforce Diversity  Workforce Diversity: Differences among recruits and employees in characteristics such as gender, race, age, religion, cultural background, physical ability, or sexual orientation  Workforce becoming more diverse  Growing recognition that many organizations have not successfully managed working force diversity  The Changed Workplace  Changing immigration patterns the aging of baby boomers and the increasing movement of women into paid employment make for alto more variety  Immigrants making the Canadian population and labour force increasingly multicultural and multiethnic  Labour pool is changing  Organizations are seeking to recruit more representatively from this pool so they make employee people who reflect their customer base—effort to better mirror the markets  Valuing Diversity  Firms were considered to be doing well if they assisted people to “fit in” with the mainstream corporate culture by fixing what was different about them  Organizations should value diversity not just tolerate or blend everyone into a narrow mainstream  Increasing awareness about diversity a
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