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Chapter 2

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COMM 251
Erica Carleton

COMM251 Week 2 Readings Chapter 2 – Individual Behaviour and Processes MARS MODELOF INDIVIDUALBEHAVIOUR AND PERFORMANCE - MARS o Four variables that directly influence voluntary individual behaviour and performance o Motivation, ability, role perceptions, and situational factors  All four are important – if one is low -> behavior and performance = low Employee Motivation - Motivation: forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behaviour - Elements of motivation o Direction – refers to the path along which people engage their effort  Direction implies motivation = goal-directed; not random o Intensity – amount of effort allocated to the goal o Persistence – continuing the effort for a certain amount of time Ability - Ability: the natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task o Aptitudes – natural talents that help employees learn specific tasks more quickly and perform them better o Learned capabilities – skills and knowledge that you have actually acquired - Competencies: skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and other personal characteristics that lead to superior performance o Challenge = match a person’s competencies with what each job requires  Approach 1: select applicants based on whose existing competencies best fit the required tasks  Approach 2: provide training so employees develop required skills and knowledge  Approach 3: redesign the job so employees are given tasks only within their capabilities Role Perceptions - Role perceptions: the accuracy of how people understand their job duties (roles) assigned to them or expected of them - Three components: o 1) employees have accurate role perceptions when they understand the specific tasks assigned to them o 2) have accurate role perceptions when understand the priority of their various tasks and performance expectations  Includes the quantity vs quality dilemma + proper allocation of time and resources o 3) understand the preferred behaviours to accomplish he assigned tasks Situational Factors - Situational factors include: o Conditions beyond the employee’s immediate control that constrain or facilitate behaviour and performance (e.g. consumer preferences and economic conditions) o Others (time, people, budget, physical work facilities) are controlled by people within the organizations  Corporate leaders need to carefully arrange these conditions so employees can achieve their performance potential PERSONALITY IN ORGANIZATIONS - Personality: the relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviours that characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind those characteristics o Determines your decisions despite varying situations o People have inherent characteristics or traits that can be identified by the consistency or stability of their behaviour across time and situations o However, people also vary their behavior to suit the situation, even if it is at odds with their personality o Thus people typically exhibit a wide range of behaviours, yet out of that variety are discernable patterns referred to as personality traits that predict behavior fat into the future Personality Determinants: Nature versus Nurture - “Nature” – genetic/hereditary origins o Studies reveal up to 50% of variation in behavior and 30% of temperament preferences can be attributed to a person’s genetic characteristics - “Nurture” – person’s socialization, life experiences, and other forms of interaction with the environment o Studies found the stability of an individual’s personality increases up to at least age 30 and possibly 50 indicating that some of personality development/change occurs when people are young o Main explanation: people form clearer and more rigid self-concepts as they age FIVE-FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY - Five-factor model (FFM): The five abstract dimensions representing most personality traits: conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience, agreeableness, and extroversion o Conscientiousness: describes people who are careful, dependable, and self-disciplined o Neuroticism: describes people with high levels of anxiety, hostility, depression, and self-consciousness o Agreeableness: traits of being courteous, good-natured, empathic, and caring o Openness to Experience: generally refers to the extent to which people are imaginative, creative, curious, and aesthetically sensitive o Extroversion: outgoing, talkative, sociable, and assertive  Get their energy from outside/others  Being an introvert doesn’t mean you’re specifically shy; just means you generally get your energy from yourself  Extroversion/introversion is the factor that is less stable in individuals (it’s very dependent on context/situation) - These dimensions not independent of each other o E.g. Conscientiousness, agreeableness, and low neuroticism represent a common underlying characteristic broadly described as “getting along” o E.g. Openness to experience, conscientiousness and extroversion share the common underlying factor “getting ahead” Five Factor Personality Dimensions and Organizational Behavior - Conscientiousness and emotional stability (low neuroticism) o Best predict individual performance in almost every job group o Both motivational components of personality:  energize a willingness to fulfill work obligations within established rules (conscientiousness)  willingness to allocate resources to accomplish those tasks (emotional stability) o high conscientiousness:  higher performance expectations  higher personal goals  more motivated  higher levels of organizational citizenship  work better in organizations that give employees more freedom - Other three personality dimensions predict more specific types of employee behaviour and performance o Extroversion: associated with performance in sales and management jobs where employees must interact with and influence people o Agreeableness: associated with performance in jobs where employees are expected to be cooperative and helpful, such as working in teams, customer relations, and other conflict-handling situations o Openness to experience: -> good for jobs requiring higher degrees of creativity and adaptability to change - Personality influences a person’s emotional reaction to their job, how well they cope with stress, and what type of career paths make them happiest Jungian Personality Theory and Myers-Briggs Type Indicator - Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): Apersonality test that measures each of the traits in Jung’s model - Jungian Personality Theory: personality primarily represented by the individual’s preferences regarding perceiving and judging information o Perception occurs through two competing orientations:  Sensing (S): involves perceiving information directly through the five senses for preferably factual and quantitative details (focus more on here and now)  Intuition (N): relies more on insight and subjective experience to see relationships among variables (focus more on future possibilities) o Judging – how people process information or make decisions based on what’s perceived  Thinking (T): rely on rational cause-effect logic and systematic data collection to make decisions  Feeling (F): rely on emotional responses to the options presented, as well as to how those choices affect others - MBTI also measures the broader categories of perceiving and judging o Perceiving – open, curious, flexible, prefer to adapt spontaneously as events unfold and prefer to keep their options open o Judging – prefer order and structure and want to resolve problems quickly Effectiveness of MBTI - PROS: o MBTI reasonably good at measuring Jung’s psychological types and seems to improve self-awareness for career development and mutual understanding - CONS: o Poorly predicts job performance and generally not recommended for employment selection or promotion decisions o Also overlaps with FFM SELF-CONCEPT: THE “I” IN ORGANIZATIONALBEHAVIOUR - Self-concept: an individual’s self-beliefs and self-evaluations o Self-concepts not always unitary o Varies in degree of complexity, consistency and clarity  Complexity: higher when consists of many categories  Consistency: higher when similar personality traits and values are required across all aspects of self-concept; low when some aspects of self require personal characteristics that conflict with those required for other aspects of self  Clarity: degree to which a person’s self-conceptions are clearly and confidently described, internally consistent, and stable across time - Better functioning when self-concept has many elements (high complexity) that are compatible with each other (high consistency) and relatively clear (high clarity). o Know how these elements are applicable to the workplace Self-enhancement and Self-verification - Self-enhancement o People tend to view themselves above average, selectively recall positive feedback while forgetting the negative, attribute successes to personal motivation or ability while blaming the situation for their mistakes  Positive consequences: individuals with positive view on self-concept: better personal adjustment and experience better mental and physical health  Negative: can result in bad decisions (e.g. as a stockbroker overestimating investment decisions you make) • Less willing to accept feedback - Self-verification o Self-verification: people are motivated to verify and maintain their existing self-concept  Self-verification stabilizes our self-concept which provides an important anchor to guide our thoughts and actions  Different from enhancement as people usually prefer feedback that is consistent with their self-concept even when feedback is unflattering o Several implications for OB:  1) affects the perceptual process because employees are more likely to remember information that is consistent with their self-concept  2) the more confident employees are in their self-concept, the less they will accept feedback that is at odds with their self-concept  3) employees are motivated to interact with others who affirm their self-concept Self-Evaluation Self-esteem - Self-esteem: represents a global self-evaluation; the extent to which people like, respect, and are satisfied with themselves o Tend to have higher self-esteem if people are more accepting and warm to you
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