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FILM 240 (24)
Chapter 3

Film Notes Week 8- Chapter 3.docx

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Department
Film and Media
Course
FILM 240
Professor
Sidney Eve Matrix
Semester
Fall

Description
Film Week 8- Chapter 3 The Development of Sound Reading - before Internet, first major media convergence involved relationship between sound recording and radio industries Cylinders to Disks: Sound Recording Becomes a Mass Medium - In 1850’s French Printer Edouard-Leon Scott de Martinville conducted first experiments with sound recording - noticed that different sounds made different trails in lamp back but couldn’t do playbacks - 1887, Thomas Edison figured out play-backs (used tinfoil around a metal cylinder) trying to playback his own voice (These cylinders became known as the phonograph) - Chichester Bell (cousin of Alex Graham Bell) patented an improvement on phonograph- the graphophone (both inventions had marginal success) - Emile Berliner, a German Engineer, created a gramophone, bringing sound recording into its mass medium stage (could be easily duplicated in mass quantities) - this developed a “star system” as labels were stamped and fans could identify favorites Victrolas: placing hardware of the record player inside furniture - first electronic record players were available in 1925, with the gramophone being an essential appliance in most American homes - polyvinyl plastic records replaed the shellac ones used before - 1948, CBS produced long playing record (LP) with 20 minutes on each side of the record From Phonographs to CDS: Analog Goes Digital - audiotapes and tape players were invented in the 1940’s - tape recorded were unsuccessful initially as it used a lot of tape and it broke easily - audiotapes lightweight magnetized strands finally made possible sound editing and multiple track mixing, where instrumentals could be recorded at 1ocation and later mixed to a master one - by mid 1960’s engineers placed miniaturized audio tapes inside small plastic cassettes and developed portable ones allowing people to listen anywhere - Audio tape allowed “home dubbing”: copying records onto tape or record songs from the radio - popularity of records still continued - Alan Blumlein invented the stereo in 1931, but not put into commercial use until 1958 (permitted the recording of 2 separate channels, or tracks of sound) - biggest recording advancement came in 1970s, when engineer Thomas Stockham made the first digital audio recordings on standard computer equipment (contrast to analog recording) Analog Recording: captures fluctuations of sound waves and stores signals in a records grooves Digital Recording: translates sound waves into binary on-off pulses and stores that information as numerical code -CD’s (Compact Discs) hit the market in 1983 (Phillips and Sony) - CD’s rendered records and audiocassettes by 2000 Convergence: Sound Recording in the Internet Age - internet became a huge hub for sharing music - music’s convergence with internet unravels the music industry in the 2000s MP3 and File Sharing - developed in 1992, became popular as they could be uploaded in a fraction of time it took to exchange non-compressed music an because they use up less memory - 1999, Napster (file sharing service) was invented - 2001, Napster was banned but many more P2P systems arose - the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) has filed thousands of lawsuits - ITUNES formed in 2003, and by 2010, sold more than 10 billion songs - however, illegal downloading still surpasses with a ratio of 10:1 - unauthorized file sharing may actually boost legitimate music sales The Future: Music in the Stream, Music in the Cloud MusicDNA: enhanced MP3 file that contain images, lyrics, and news updates embedded into file - some companies envision music to be purchased but not downloaded onto an MP3 player - instead. It would reside “in the cloud” of the Internet0 meaning that songs would never have to be downloaded between mobile devices and computer, but always be free to stream The Rocky Relationship between Records and Radio - always been closely linked - radio provided free music through airwaves and as a result, records became less popular - battle heated up when radio stations broadcasted recorded music without compensating the music industry - then, radio’s provided their own live music and the recording industry could not do anything - they began to cooperate once the TV became popular in the 1950’s - alliance formed between the 2 and was aided largely by rock and roll music - it created a large youth market and provided much-needed new content for radio U.S Popular Music and the Formation of Rock - pop music encompasses styles as diverse as blues, country, salsa, jazz, dance etc The Rise of Pop Music - existed prior to the phonograph or radio - at turn of 20 century, with the ability for publishers to mass produce sheet music, popular songs moved from being novelty to being a major business enterprise - as sheet music grew in popularity jazz developed in New Orleans - first pop vocalists of the 20 century were products of the vaudeville circuit which radio, movies, and the Depression would bring to an end in the 1930’s - in the 20’s Eddie Cantor, Belle Baker, Sophie Tucker, and Al Johnson were popular - Bling Crosby arrived in the 30’s with Sentra in the 40’s Rock and Roll Here to Stay - hit in the 50’s, rock and roll was a blues slang for sec lending it instant controversy - early rock and roll combined vocal instrument traditions of pop with the rhythm and blues - considered first integrationist music (merging black sounds with white influences of country) - rock and roll simultaneously transformed the structure of 2 mass media industries: sound recording and radio - many social, economic, cultural, and political factors in the 50’s led to the growth of rock and roll such as the black migration, growth of youth culture, and beginnings of racial integration Blue and R&B: The Foundation of Rock and Roll - migration of South blacks to north to find better jobs helped spread different popular music - blue music came to North influenced by spirituals, ballads, and work songs from South - electric guitar gave southern blues its urban style - R&B: Rhythm and Blues Youth Culture Cements Rock and Roll’s Place: Youth tried to run away from menacing world created by adults through wars, communism, bombs, etc Racial Integration Expands Rock and Roll: most significant factor of growth of rock and roll Rock Muddies the Waters - rock and roll also exploded old distinctions between high and low culture, masculinity and femininity, country and city, north and south, and the sacred to secular High and Low Culture - Elvis Presley’s pegged pants and gyrating hips, and other new stage rituals were an affront to the norms of well-behaved, culturally elite audiences - musicians performing in high culture genres such as classical have even adoped some of rock and roll’s ideas in an effort to boost sales and popularity - some virtuoso’s such as violinist Joshua Bell performs in Jeans and in untraditional places Masculinity and Femininity - first popular music genre to overtly confuse issues of sexual identity and orientation - most sexually outrageous rock and roll performer: Richard Penniman (considered Rock and Rolls first drag queen) - he did this because he feared of being a sex symbol to white girls The Country and the City - blurred between black urban rhythms of Memphis and white country music from Nashville - created a sound called rockabilly The North and the South - with blues and R&B and Rock and Roll rising from South, it migrated to North after civil war - like white teens are into Hip Hop, Elvis and other white people loved music from the Black The Sacred and the Secular - many rock figures had close ties to religion: throughout the rock and roll era today, boundaries between sacred and secular continue to blue with church music becoming rock Battles in Rock and Roll - two white disc jockeys tried to get rock and roll accepted by all masses - Alan Freed played original R&B recordings and black versions of rock and roll on his program - Dick Clark believed making black music acceptable to white audiences required white people covering black peoples music - however black
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