Space brokers: in the days before modern advertising, individuals who purchased space in newspapers and sold it to various merchants. Subliminal advertising: refers to hidden or disguised print and visual messages that allegedly register in the subconscious and fool people into buying products. Mega-agencies: large ad firms that formed by merging several agencies and that maintain regional offices worldwide. Boutique-agencies: devote their talents to only a handful of select clients. Four departments of creating and maintaining advertising campaigns: account planning. Market research: in advertising and public relations agencies, the department that uses social science techniques to assess the behaviors and attitudes of consumer toward particular products before any ads are created . Demographic: mainly studied and documented audience members age, gender, occupation, ethnicity, education, and income. Psychographics: is a research approach that attempts to categorize consumers according to their attitudes, beliefs, interests, and motivations.