GEOL 104 Chapter Notes -Diagenesis, Mudstone, Clastic Rock

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After weathering, particles of rock are carried away from the source via wind, rain etc. and deposit in a new location. Upon burial, this sediment becomes lithified and transformed into rock. Bottom layer of sediment becomes compacted and cemented together by mineral matter deposited in spaces between particles. Diagenesis describes the chemical, physical, and biologic change that occur after sediments are deposited, but before metamorphism. Burial encourages diagenesis due to increased temperature and pressure. Occurs between 150-200 c within the upper few kilometers of the crust. Lithification is the process by which unconsolidated sediments are transformed into solid sedimentary rocks. Clastic sedimentary rocks: rocks composed of particles that originate as solid, derived from both physical and chemical weathering. Chemical sedimentary rocks: occur from dissolved ions that are precipitated from a solution. Precipitated from an aqueous solution; often showing crystalline texture. Biochemical sedimentary rocks: rocks composed of organic matter from carbon-rich tissues of once living things.

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