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Chapter 18&19

International Development - Chapter 18 & 19 Notes
International Development - Chapter 18 & 19 Notes

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Queen's University
Global Development Studies
DEVS 100
David A Mc Donald

Chapter 18 - Rural Development Introduction: ● National governments debate the relevance and necessity of rural development ● Rural development does not usually achieve it’s objectives ● Agriculture is the primary livelihood source for rural poor ● ODA to rural areas is declining Putting The ‘Rural’ In Context ● Rural has two forms ○ Material form with spatial identity: low population and high dependency on agriculture ○ Ideal form is tight communities, patriarchal power, etc ○ As the two of these exist, it’s hard to pinpoint rurality to one thing to be developed ● National statistical service distinguish urban and rural by threshold levels determined by non-agricultural production and a minimum population level ● Four features of rurality can be distinguished ○ Relative abundance of natural capital - dependence on unpredictable events of the natural land ○ Relative abundance to labour - distribution to labour e.g. women, men, children taking care of crops ○ Relative isolation - limited ability to influence international politics, lack of infrastructure results in isolation ○ Relative importance of social factors - access to fuelwood, farmland, water. Relations with natives and leaders ● Rural areas often have much greater income diversity ● World Development Report categorizes countries into three different rural worlds ○ Agriculture-based countries - agriculture is dominant component of GDP ○ Transforming countries - agriculture is no longer a major contributor to growth but there is still a lot of poverty ○ Urbanized countries - poverty is predominantly urban but rural poverty exists - agriculture can represent 1/3rd of GDP ● ‘Peasant’ societies are rural cultures dependent on local production. Distribution of wealth is affected by contact with a nation-state Rural Transformations ● Agricultural intensification - increasing the overall crop output of the land by increasing inputs of labour, capital, knowledge, and technological resources ● Agricultural extensification - expanding the areas cultivated ● Boserup hypothesized that in increase in population density is an independent variable sufficient to trigger agricultural intensification and the technical innovations needed to support it ● Agriculture intensification can be induced by other forces than land shortage, such as the improvement of infrastructure Models ● In 1950s dual economy theory of development assumed small-farms were lacking capacity to raise national productivity ● Second paradigm shift towards ‘participatory’ models accepted since late 1980s ● Community development approach of the 1950s derived from British and Indian experience ● CD was a process, method, program, institution which taught democratic methods ● CD flourished after WWII ● CD led to emerging emphasis on small farm growth ● Also brought efforts to promote balanced rural development on a larger scale ● Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) is a framework for development which puts farmers first in the South ● Assumption that top-down planning without involvement of stakeholders failed previous approaches ● Key to PRA is experts change attitudes towards local people ● PRA is now a standard tool of development ● Participation is now criticized for becoming a new form of tyranny ● Sustainable livelihoods approach is latest attempt to confront poverty ○ Challenges fa
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