Missionary and Tourism

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Queen's University
Global Development Studies
DEVS 100
Karen Dubinsky

Missionaries -NGOs in Africa and their role in development represents continuity of the work of their precursors, the missionaries, and voluntary organizations that cooperated in Europe’s colonization and control in Africa -NGOs’ work contributes marginally to the relief of poverty but undermines the struggle of the African people to emancipate themselves from economic, social, and political oppression Binary- developed vs. underdeveloped (civilized/savage-> overly racist replaced by ‘racially neutral’ knowledge -missionary charity/development technological expertise -neoliberal era-> NGO boom-> preferred channel for eservice provision in deliberate substitution for the state, like education, similar to churches in the past -NGO service delivery projects motivated by charity, pity, and doing things for people implicitly who can’t do it for themselves -believed missionaries impose their beliefs of realities on other people-> colonization-> economy-> Christianity converted savages (godless people) to their religion Transculturation-subordinated or marginal groups select or invent from materials transmitted to them by a dominant group -lesser groups can’t really control what comes from the dominant culture, but they do determine to varying extent what they absorb into their own and what they use it for -Fernando Ortiz Contact Zone- social spaces were disparate cultures meet, clash, and grapple with each other, often in highly asymmetrical relations of domination and subordination -missionaries gain money through charity but also spread their message -missionaries told stories mostly to children to get them interested -majority was females in missionaries-> independence, not scandalous, got to travel and get an education-> encouraged Frantz Fanon- tortured is what effects the developed countries humanity -colonialism affects cultural and psychological -inequality is a belief in inferiority based on the enforced values of the developed countries Tourism -culturally colonizing the aboriginals through missionaries-> ‘cleaning’ them up: changing clothes, haircuts, etc. -tourism is a continuation of past colonial power, not a promise of hope-> tourists are privileged -tourism, especially Third World tourism, doesn’t benefit the majority of people-> it exploits, pollutes, destroys, and robs because of their culture and traditional values Tropicalization or Going Native-> moral corruption -Caribbean is seen as a paradise in the European imagination, uses African-American as slaves for the Europeans-> corrupting sexuality-> abundance Mass Tourism-twentieth century -vacation with pay rights in collective agreements/legislations -infrastructure/economy-> train, auto and air travel, hotel industry, service industry -cultural change-> travel is ‘good for you’ Tourist Gaze-always directed at difference, separated off from everyday life -expands through tourist industry, constant attempt to bring new places, people, things, to the tourists’ attention -tourism is not one-dimensional-> many layers -majority of tourism happens when First World people travel to other First World countries -First World generates largest number of tourists, receives more tourist dollars, and receives bulk of tourists -Third World domestic Tourism -First World tourism in ‘informal’ sector, for example eco-tourism and backpackers Contact Zone- increasingly easier to get to their estimation and still have a dominate view -Caribbean imports sugar cane, palm trees, mangos, and breadfruit -economy and society is disliking slavery-> stops continuing it-> European fascination of slavery Tourism as a Development Strategy -ideal i
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