Darker Nations: A People’s History of the Third World

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Queen's University
Global Development Studies
DEVS 100
Karen Dubinsky

Darker Nations: A People’s History of the Third World -war between colonizers and the colonized-> colonized resisted, had revolutions, strongly wanted liberation-> colonized had an advantage and knew they couldn’t trust the colonizer-> colonizer desperately tried to dominate and failed Iron Curtain-Winston Churchill -described the division of the former allies into First World and Second World Albert Sauvy-resistance fighter -believed the world is divided into First World, Second World, and Third World First World-consisted of the United States and Western Europe -‘West’ -market capitalism -formed the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) -commitment to market equality -Eugene Black, president of the World Bank, believed that economic aid from the First World to the Third World should be the principle where the West maintains its political and economic dynamic in the underdeveloped world Second World-rejected market capitalism -believed in socialist planning -generally worked in collusion with the largest socialist state, the USSR -commitment to total equality -European nationalism is where people needed to be organized by identities by a state so that their nation can come into its own-> anticolonialists argue that diverse people need to be free of colonial rule Third World-political independence, nonviolent international relations, and the cultivation of the United Nations as the principle institution for planetary justice -collect together for moral force not armed force-> created organizations such as the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), the Group of 77 (G-77), or references to the continents that formed the bulk of the colonized world (Africa, Asia, and Central and South America) -> not united for cultural or economic reasons, but for a political movement against imperialism’s legacy and its continuance-> joint action at the United Nations, and other international venues -internationalist nationalism-> everyone is accepted -exploited by the First World media as needy and dependent -not weak-> able to stand up and liberate themselves -conservative economist Lord Peter T. Bauer rejected the term Third World because it inferred that all people in the Third World have the same distinctive identity, character, personality, and responsibility -starvation because of overpopulation rather than imperialism-> needs aid from the First World with family planning and birth control -struggle became social legitimacy -no social revolution-> leadership began to rely on the landed and merchant classes for political power which led to various forms of hieracry, such as sexism and graded inequality-> neopatriarchy, a modern state of traditional patriarchy -when colonized, seen as valuable regions for human labour and resources-> now liberated, seen as worthless -against neocolonialism and domination by means other than territorial conquest Cold War-First World and Second World fell out openly when the United States’ president Harry S. Truman announced his support for the anti-communist forces, and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) helped conservatives to defeat communists -East-West conflict with nuclear weapons -1946-1991 -unequal conflict, even though the USSR and the United States saw each other as equal adversaries, although they are economically different -USSR’s economy, population, and capacity to rebuild itself was devastated by the war-> the imperatives of rapid development tarnished the ideals of USSR since its population went into a severe program to build its productive base at the expense of most internal freedoms -First World used the shortages and repression in the USSR as an instructive tool to wield over the heads of their own working class-> gained economically and politically -caused penalties for socialism and had to pay the penalties for Soviet limitations Andrei Zhdanov-divided the world into two camps: Imperialist- lead by the United States, with Great Britain and France as the minions Democratic-anti-imperialist -supported by the working class and democratic movement in all countries, from the fraternal Communist Parties, from the
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