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GNDS 125 (6)

Bodies ,Socialization, and the Social Construction of Gender

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Gender Studies
GNDS 125
Jane Tolmie

-culture is made of stereotypes: pink for girl, blue for boys but has changed over time -intersection analysis between race and gender Killing Me Softly 4 -advertising images of women and marketing-> everyone feels personally exempt-> people believe they are not influenced, but they are wrong because advertisements work fast and subconsciously-> sells values, culture, normalcy, and sexuality-> surrounds society with images of the ‘ideal’ women: flawless and cannot be achieved naturally-> advertisements use technology and retouching-> takes many rounds and time to retouch-> real women and girls measure themselves against this fake image-> non-Caucasians have a harder time-> self- esteem issues for females-> men judge women and compare them to women in advertisements-> women in advertisements are turned into objects and it can lead to and justify violence and abuse, which can be seen in issues of race-> some advertisements have the body disembodied and the body is not fully shown, especially breasts, which causes women to want bigger breasts-> dehumanizes women -women who get breast implants causes some women to lose sensation in their breasts and it causes breasts to become objects for someone else’s pleasure -men don’t live in a world where their bodies are always scrutinized -women are forced to cut-down and have eating disorders -many fashion designers are encouraging eating disorders and anorexia because they are sending smaller clothes that only people of anorexia can wear -dieting is bad, but continues, but obesity has increased in society, which is a problem too -food advertisements connects with women and sex -cultural differences, but the ideal women around the world is skinny and Caucasian -advertisements silence women, and their body language is seen as innocent, childlike, and silly -advertisements for men are seen as dignity -sexualisation in children and failure to educate children about sex-> increase in teen pregnancy -in advertisements, sex is trivialized to sell anything-> more pornographic-> seen as less intimate -pornography has become more mainstream especially cause of the increase in technology -limitations: -overlooked the possibility that men experience body image issues, their sexual harassment -doesn’t look at race, ethnicity, and sexualities Socialization and the Social Construction of Gender Lenses of Gender -Sandra Bem Androcentrism-male-centeredness-> makes everything male seem to be the norm, universally human -women appear deviant, less human, alien, or ‘other’ -for example, referring all human beings as ‘mankind’ Gender Polarization-ways that diverse aspects of human experience are culturally linked to sex difference -for example, men are authoritative and rational, and women are submissive, irrational, and wears pink Essentialism-view that gender is a fixed biological or psychological trait that doesn’t vary among individuals or over time -> used to argue that racial ethnic capacities and traits are innate -socially constructed fiction about race or gender is treated as biological reality-> W.I Thomas if people define situations as real, then their consequences are real-> akin to stereotyping-> not all individuals can be divided into either male or female which categorizes and judges groups of individuals according to a few shared characteristics -> broad generalization Mirra Komarovsky-found that educated women were greatly dissatisfied with their allotted roles -women were meant to stay in the private sphere and take care of children, and men were the single male breadwinner to support the family-> if not, family is seen as disorganized Matriarchs- strong black mothers who are blamed for emasculating their black husbands and depriving their children of an authority figure Patricia Hill Collins- argued that it’s important to understand how intersecting oppressions of class and gender differentiates women nationally and globally-> for example, white women are oppressed by gender but dominates in race Glick and Fiske- sex categorization is resilient because it functions as a cognitive labour-saving device and is the most automatic and pervasive way to classify others on first encounters Interactionist-gender is based on everyday social practices and social interactions -people produce gender in specific situations and contexts Accountability- being held accountable for you actions by others in the social world Symbolic Interactionism-Herbert Blumer -human beings interpret or define each other’s actions instead of merely reacting to each other’s actions-> response is based on the meaning which they attach to such actions Harold Garfinkel-provided an example where Agnes was born and raised as a boy changed to be a girl with external and internal manifestation of sexual status-> practical methodologist-> made gender happen Sex- depends on social cues Erving Goffman- arrangements like public bathrooms and sports that segregate men and women is a cultural matter and is unnecessary Anthony Giddens- social structures are built from acting subjects-> interaction produces gender Karl Marx- product of structures through interaction is transmitted from the past-> limited and shaped Microinequities-Sandler -ways we are treated differently because of our race ethnicity, gender, age, class, or sexuality Rosabeth Moss Kanter -studied men and women differences in workplaces -structural features of corporations: -structure of opportunity offered by the organization-> women are given less promotions because their work has less opportunities-> men who has jobs where their opportunity for growth is limited fit with the stereotype of women and both look for activities outside of work-> lower self-esteem and less committed to work -structure or distribution of power-> people who can mobilize resources and get the work done are less rigid, authoritarian, better liked, helpful and more cooperative -relative numbers of men and women employed-> women are ridiculed and scrutinized for having power -believed that organizational structures are gender neutral-> differences between unequal groups are always likely Tokenism- social relations that grow from belonging to a tiny minority amid a large majority Joan Acker-gender is not neutral in organizations-> jobs are neutral but society makes it gendered -organizational processes create gendered division, constructs symbols and images that support gender differences in organizations, and promotes gendered components of individual identity Social Institution- practices, power relations, norms, interactional dynamics, and ideologies surrounding social phenomena Charles Horton Cooley- self and society give birth to each other C. Wright Mills- individuals and social forms are ‘biography’ and history-> where biography is the history of the individuals state of becoming-> history is the story of groups, people, and entities that are constantly changing an evolving Ann Arneet Ferguson- studied the stigmatization that African American schoolboys are less intelligent and troublemakers-> based on poverty Patricia Yancey Martin-way that gender is constructed in large organizations, and show how subtle forms of gendering practice reproduce inequalities -gender stereotyping requests, like ‘cook my food’ are usually not articulated, but rather built into the language of institutionalized positions -brothers and sisters are relatively equal relationships between men and women -boys that go to school lack the resources for male privilege -friendship and equality are a much better basis for intimate relationships than mistrust and a sense of strangers -gender is built on gender socialization, sustained by social expectations and accountability Barrie Thorne- shows how an individual-level framework explains gender as a system learned through socialization and pushes us to see gender differentiation but makes invisible the nongendered social activity in children’s play Gender Inequality- devaluation of women and the social domination of men-> social functions and history Structuration-Anthony Giddens -relationship between human agency and social structure, between the individual level of action where we exercise choice and the structural level of tradition, moral codes, institutions, and established ways of doing things which constrains our choices Bodies and Genders Heterosexual Matrix -Judith Butler Biology is destiny- biologicals determines one’s sexual and social identity-> Sigmund Freud Only two sexes: male and female- natural course of development dictated by our genes, hormones, and gonards Two-sex order is universal, a fact of nature- deviations from this are mistakes of nature or culture-> intervention required to restore the order -many have questioned if nature or culture is responsible for the change of sex to gender Sex-Gender-Edward Stein -reflects that some things might cause the change of biological sex to social gender -boundary between sex and gender is disabling -includes all the characteristics involved to distinguish males from females Suzanne Kessler and Wendy McKenna-treats sex as an aspect of gender-> biological factors are socially constructed -ethnomethodology-> reality is what we see and experience directly-> natural attitude, gender is a biological, universal, and unchanging reality where men are men and women are women -scientists assign individuals to sex categories based on their observations of people-> we adopt the natural attitude Judith Lorber- women and men are fairly alike biologically and that social and cultural selection processes produce individuals we see as men and women Sex-complex interplay of genes, hormones, environment, and behaviour with loopback effects between bodies and society -adjectives male, female, and intersex is used to refer to apparent biological features of sex Sexuality-lustful desire, emotional involvement, and fantasy -using terms homosexuality, lesbianism, heterosexuality, bisexuality, omnisexuality, and asexuality -studies of sexual orientation suggests that there are no hard and fast divides among individuals in the objects of their sexual desires -individual feels of homosexuality, lesbianism heterosexuality, and bisexuality need not be fixed for life nor mutually exclusive Gender-social status, legal designation, and a personal identity -gender divisions and their accompanying norms and expectations are part of major social institutions Fausto-Sterling- argued there are Five Sexes because of people capability to only inherit on X chromosomes or more than two X and Y chromosomes-> for example, X, XXX, XYY, XXY Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)- condition related to steroid hormone production-> masculinizes XX individuals Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS)-condition that causes XY children to develop female genitals -also known as Testicular Feminization Gonadal Dysgenesis-abnormal gonadal development -various conditions where individual anatomies include gonads or secondary sex characteristics of both sexes -South Africa policies eliminates all types of discrimination -women and men who compete in international sports games must parade naked before a gynecologist to prove their gender Buccal Smear-procedure developed to test the athlete’s genders -lab technician scrapes a few skin cells from the inside of a person’s check, stains the tissue sample and examines it under a high-powered microscope-> if the cells have two X chromosomes, then the technician will see a dark spot called Barr Body, inside the cell’s nuclei-> if only one X chromosome is present, then no dark spots will appear -women athletes can’t be too masculine or they will be called a lesbian, or too aggressive or they will be called too mannish-> must market themselves as heterosexual and nonthreatening Thomas Laqueur-how we view, underst
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