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HIST 121
Richard Bailey

PLATO  Born in Athens  Man are teachable; but subject to appetites  Certain men have innate powers  There is inequality  Dialectical reasoning  Wrote the Republic – Moral Theory and Political Practice  Questions the existence of more than the 5 sense  Believed that a world of change isn’t a good foundation of knowledge (outside of space, time, and eternality) World of Forms  Unchanging foundations of knowledge  Universals can’t be seen but only comprehend with the mind = essence  Forms exist before their particulars  Forms give material to their functionality ex: triangleness-> can’t see it, or touch it, yet our mind comprehends it Understanding Forms o Line Analogy: lower visible world known by our senses o Higher world = known by our mind o Highest abstraction = Good (standard) Cave Analogy o Men- chained up o Fire reflects shadows on walls o Sun = the ultimate sense of truth o Cave= senses (constrained by them) o Philo breaks free & sees the sun , hurts his eyes so he retreats, tells other men to leave the cave, but they don’t listen -> This shows how everything in our imperfect world is a shadow to the forms in the perfect Politics – The Republic  Timarchy: efficient with military control and law but were unjust  Oligarchy: minority has political control  Democracy: “equality” – people are bad judges and democracy are dependent by the people  Tyranny: social disunity and authoritarianism  Classes: (1) Rulers -> Govern (2)Auxiliaries -> Assist rulers with decisions and help enforce them (3) Farmers/ merchants/traders -> met the people’s needs The Philosopher Ruler: spend time with philosophy – most enlightened and should oversea governmental actions  Believes the people have the potential to be good through education  Justice = political stability (doing your job and living virtuously)  Virtuous State = virtuous people  Learning about forms starts with children – teach them how to suppress their appetites Aristotle:  Inequality because men are born a slave or a master  Naturally Political being  Desires to attain justice that promotes happiness  Was Plato’s Student -> Left Plato’s academy because there was too much math, set up his own school called the Lyceum  Believed forms aren’t separate from the real object  Aristotle makes forms less abstract (realist) Substance = forms – 2 Kinds of Substances (1) Primary Substance = Intellectual known -> “Horseness” (2) Secondary Substance = The actual thing-> “The Horse”  Time, colour, place = accidents (predicators of the primary substance)  Substances are constantly changing forms so causation helps us understand how forms change into other forms (formal, material, efficient, and final)  Experience = individual, Art = Generalized, Body = Female, Soul= Male, Good carpenter = fulfills his purpose/functions well Politics: 3 Governments: Aristocracy: Ruled by a few Monarchy: The One Polity: Ruler of Many  State exists to make life good  People are good and evil but have free will  Best government is a combination of aristocracy and polity because it doesn’t give one group too much power since governments are susceptible to corruption  Roman government had all 3 governments = best balance Cicero:  Law = highest reason, what ought to be done  Voice of conscience and moral prudence are laws  Greeks Law = Distance of good equally  Romance = discrimination between good and evil  Law is fond in the eternal and immutable morality (similar to Plato)  Also known as natural law  Right reason = law  Universe = one immeasurable commonwealth & city common alike to gods and mortals  Savage and ferocious nations deny the necessity of worshipping God  Every man must recognize a Diety, who considers the origin of their nature and progress of his life  Law is a virtue is the same in God & man  Man is born for, justice and law and equty aren’t a matter of opinion, but an institution of nature  Speech = souls interpreter  Reason = our advantage  Men have vices  Similar desires, joys, fears, but not opinions  All have respect for virtue though  Truce Nature = Selfless  True Friendship = friends first  Good men rise above law  Intentions matter – don’t do bad out of private advantage or fear = cunning -> Therefore, not all things are just  Only one essential justice = right reason = true rule of all commandments & prohibitions  Neglect law = unjust and wicked  Virtues come from natural inclinators = true basis of justice  No other way of establishing good or bad law besides natural conscience  First Principles: we connect to virtue  Do not use opinions to measure morality  Goodness is what it is (essence) not an opinion  Act just for its own sake, not yours  Law begins with God  Law must be morally good and just  Law = state = desires to be good  Law = essence & energy of justice & equity  God knows our nature (we should let these views inspire us) + are loving/wise/good REASON SAVES US Paul of Tarsus  The Gospel is the power of God for salvation to everyone who has faith  Discusses state of humanity  Not worshipping God/suppressing truth = wrath of God  Fools = worship false Gods  Some exchange the truth about God for a lie and worship the creature over the creator  Gentiles worship idols over god  Jews failed to follow laws – not the most importance, obbediance is important, but the most important ways is through faith, jesus etc  Hebrew law caused him to be too proud -> society doesn’t follow God  Salvation = faith  Faith = Gods love manifested in the unworthy  Adams Fall = sin & death  Jesus birth/sacrifice = life & grace  Baptism = new life of grace and purity  Holiness = governor, not sin because holiness = eternal life  Don’t live according to flesh, but to spirit  Harmony, humility, love = main concerns -> undoes our sins  Urges charity, for bearance & submission  Don’t judge or reject the weak in faith  Suffering -> Endurance -> Character -.> Hope -> Gods love/Holy Spirit – character is built through suffering Thomas Aquinas  Keep the end in view  The proper end
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