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Chapter all

HLTH 101 Chapter Notes - Chapter all: Disability-Adjusted Life Year, Whitehall Study, Social Epidemiology

Health Studies
Course Code
HLTH 101
Elaine Power

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HLTH Readings notes EXAM
Davidson Text book Introduction p.1-15
- Varying outcomes associated with health fall under two main groups through choice (laying
around of the couch watching video games all day) or through no fault of their own
(Environmental toxins)
- Some threats to health are behavioural (smoking or riding a bike without a helmet)
- The extent to which something posses a risk to us depends on our level of susceptibility and
If you’re a middle aged women with a family history of breast cancer you are more
susceptible to it
- Conventional model of health and disease: Assumes health-relevant outcomes are a consequence
of the interaction between variables associated with vulnerability/resilience and biological and
behavioural variables
- Risk factor: Health behaviours or environmental factors or even susceptibilities
- In the early 20th century there came around a theory called health, disease, and life expectancy
Its message was that children, females the elderly and the frail are predisposed to poor
health outcomes and thus ned to be shielded from emotional shocks
Even today this theory lives on when women are regarded as being prone to emotional
distress, hence vulnerable to anxiety and depression
- Modern thinking about risk to health are just as individualized as the older concepts
- In the pre-modern view of health character flaws such as vices (consuming alcohol, promiscuity,
or risk taking) formed a large part of the explanation of disease incidents
- Vice or virtue made up a large chunk of pre-disposition to poor health outcomes
- Epidemiology: the science based on the modern concepts of hosts and agents
- Risk factor analysis: an effort to figure out ho probable an injury is given certain factors external
to those riders such as the condition of their bike and the rode’s
The probability of developing lung caner is higher among those who some however this
docent means that everyone who smokes will develop lung cancer
- Points to keep in mind when talking about risk factor analysis:
1.) The risks/threats are probabilities not certainties
2.) The risks we have calculated, the probabilities, are derived from looking at large
numbers of cases what epidemiologists would call a population
3.) Recent research has called into question the ability of risk factor analysis for the
systematic differences in health across populations
A new Perspective on our health: rise of an alternate view
- The Lalonde Report: argues that health care services are not the primary means of improving
health, nor according to the document can we rely on improved living conditions to enhance
- Dr. Thomas McKeown’s view: that medical care and conventional public health services pay very
little role in reducing illness and premature death
- New prospective brought much needed attention to social and contextual factors such as the
impact of urbanization on eating and exercise patterns, the stress associated with city living,
disorientation arising from rapid social change and the mental and physical health implications of
the modern workplace
- Achieving health for all: A framework for health promotion challenges
Reduce inequalities in health between high and low- income Canadians.
Prevent injury and disease
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Provide better support to individuals and communities, particularly in the areas of chronic
disease, mental health and disability
Introduce the “Health promotion framework”
o Expand education and promotion of individual behavioural change to make
people have healthier lifestyles.
- Ottawa Charter for health promotion
Charter calls for action among all level of government and non- government through
communities and families, as well as organizations in pursuit of a physical and social
environment conducive to health, access to health information, and the development of
life skills and opportunities for making healthy choices.
Health inequalities
- Health disparities in Canada are obvious and troubling
- The different in health between Canada’s aboriginal peoples and everyone else is case and point
of this
- A lot of the time aboriginals are blamed for this or we can use the risk factor analysis to come to
conclusions about this for example: their housing is poorer, they have less access to food, they are
more likely to use substances.
- Population differences may be unavoidable however variations are no longer simply considered
health inequalities but more health inequities
- Health Inequities: Patterned differences in disease incidences, disability, and life expectancy
between sub-populations that arise from conditions that can be changed by collective action, such
as changes in public policies.
- If we have the power to change something that could potentially make someone not suffer or be
in pain then we have the moral obligation to do so and in this case we can and should be trying to
The Basis of Health inequalities
- Comparatively more affluent places with more developed health and other services have healthier
- This suggests that the large and overwhelming difference in health arise from poverty rates and
the availability of effective health care
- This leads us to the conclusion that the context in which people live their lives, and the resources
available to the primary determinants of population health outcomes
Population health and Politics
- Neo-Liberal ideology aligns well with a conventional view of health that regards health outcomes
as mostly a product of genes (about which we can currently do very little) and risks (which are
substantially within a persons own control)
Davidson Textbook Models of Health p.256-260
- Different levels of analysis yield different models of health
The individual level explored the biomedical model of agent and host
Health in the behavioural model is functionality
o A desirable state arising from choosing more exercise over less, better foods over
worse, and less stressful situations over more stressful ones
- Arising from these two individual-level models are the familiar approaches to improvising health:
health-care services, health education, and efforts to modify health-relevant behaviour through
incentives, regulation and the like.
- Marmot’s key message: population level health differences from social inequalities, not from the
fault of individuals THUS reducing health inequalities is a matter of social justice
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- In Marmot’s view aligns strongly with liberal ideology, which in turn aligns with the nature of the
market economies of the Anglo- American world
- Canada and the US have a consumerism/neo-liberalism view of health
- Northern Europe has a solidarity principle: people see themselves as linked to others with their
welfare tied to the health and welfare of other members of their communities
- Solidarity also underlines efforts to support more vulnerable individuals and families through
more robust social welfare measures, child care, and health-care services
ARTICLE: Bring on the Duelling top-10’s: Two lists not to die for By: André Picard
- Every day in all media forms we find that articles about health slip in their opinions on how we
can “Stay health
- These tips range from eat an apple a day to eat more tomato’s to stave off prostate cancer to get
regular mammograms to check for break cancer
- From these it would be easy to come up with a list of health no goes to apparently “stay healthy
however these only work in some term and not in others
- A lot of the little tips they give include things that mean adapting to your environment, however
there are more important factors then that
Income is a better assessor the higher income the better your life will be and the more
you have available to you to keep you healthy
Environment is a better assessor live in a clean and safe environment surrounded by
people who are healthy
ARTICLE: Public health: Policies and Politics By: Rob Baggott
- Public health: refers to the health of a population, the longevity of its individual members and the
extent to which they are free from disease.
- Public health can also be seen as a philosophy of intervention aimed at protecting and promoting
the health of the population
- Public health is seen as an issue because if public health can include so many things it risks being
seen as nothing at all except this large and complicated project
- It has also been argued that the elevation of health over other considerable facilities the
domination of individuals by “health experts” particularly the medical profession
- Public health reflect key ideological debates regarding the freedom of the individual, the authority
of the state and the balance between individual and collective responsibilities.
VIDEO: What is Public health?
- Definition - Public health is a discipline that addresses health at a population level
- Public is different then clinical medicine because public health docent deal with patients at an
individual level instead it deals with a widespread of people
- public health professionals try to understand and try to fix/ correct what is wrong
- they gather information to understand and intervene
- they do surveillance and research
- they are trying to understand outcomes and diseases
- pubic health wants to understand relationships between exposure and outcomes
- they also want to plan interventions to improve public health
- public health professions want to act on their understanding of the issues
- they want to prevent diseases and issues from occurring
- they also want to care and treat the people who currently have their issues
- to prevent disease and disability they promote good behaviour choices and they reduce exposure
to risks
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