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Chapter 1-12

HLTH 101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-12: Prescription Drug, Limited Government, Friedrich Engels


Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTH 101
Professor
Elaine Power
Chapter
1-12

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Week 1
Question 1
Health inequities:
Select one:
a. refer to differences in population health that are avoidable, such as the gap between the health of the richest and
the health of the poorest
b. arise from conditions over which we have no control
c. is a concept that is practically the same as the concept of health inequalities
d. result from genetic differences
e. would disappear if everyone ate healthily, engaged in physical activity regularly, and consumed alcohol in
moderation
Question 2
Neoliberalism (or liberal individualism) does not support the improvement of population health because:
Select one:
a. it aligns with a conventional view of health that sees health outcomes as a mix of genetics and lifestyle
determinants of health
b. it does not support the strong government action and intervention needed for public health to do its work
c. tax cuts mean that there is not enough government money to fund public health adequately
d. it tends to increase the income gap between the richest and the poorest, which adversely affects population
health
e. all of the above
f. none of the above
Question 3
The term “gradient in health” (or health gradient) refers to the idea that:
Select one:
a. those who take the best care of their health by eating healthily and engaging in physical activity regularly should
naturally rise to positions in power
b. there is a natural hierarchy of health related to one’s genetics
c. there is little a society can do about reducing the gap between the most healthy and the least healthy
d. as income (and other social determinants, such as level of education or job quality) rises, so does health and life
expectancy
e. there are some lucky people who live long, healthy lives and other unlucky people who do not
Question 4
Chronic stress:
Select one:
a. mostly affects those at the top of organizational hierarchies, such as business executives
b. occurs when pressures are relentless and those affected do not have the power or resources to control them
c. results in a prolonged activation of stress pathways, including stress hormones, affecting memory, immune
function, heart rate variability, glucose processing, blood pressure, and other bodily functions
d. has the biggest effect on those in high demand/low control jobs
e. all of the above
f. all of the above except (a)
Question 5
According to the Lalonde Report:
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Select one:
a. medical care plays the most important role in reducing illness and premature death
b. our most important challenge to create a healthy society is to reduce inequities in health between high- and low-
income Canadians
c. Canadians must become more active individually and collectively in maintaining and enhancing their health by
adopting healthy lifestyles and protecting air and water quality
d. those who are most likely to benefit from lifestyle changes are least likely to be able to make them
e. (b) and (c)
Week 2
Thomas McKeown argued that
Select one:
a. deaths from infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, pertussis, and measles, fell sharply after 1850 because of
changes in social and environmental factors, especially better nutrition
b. deaths from infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, pertussis, and measles, fell sharply after 1850 because
better health care and better treatments, such as antibiotics that meant more people survived after getting the
disease
c. deaths from infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, pertussis, and measles, fell sharply after 1850 because of
widespread immunizations that prevented these diseases
d. the most important tool to improve population health is sanitation, especially clean drinking water and sewage
systems
e. unnecessary or inappropriate health care interventions and services pose a significant threat to population health
Question 2
Healthy lifestyles
Select one:
a. appear to have the greatest positive health effects on those already living in high economic and social
circumstances
b. appear to have little measurable impact on the health of lower-income people
c. are difficult to achieve and maintain for those who live in poverty
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
Question 3
The social patterning of behaviour
Select one:
a. is important for some forms of behaviour, like fashion choices, but not others, including health behaviours,
which are under individual control
b. is only important in understanding behaviour after the epidemiologic transition has occurred
c. refers to falling rates of infectious, parasitic and nutritional diseases and rising prominence of chronic disease
associated with growing affluence
d. refers to the usually unconscious determination of behaviour by contextual factors, including the social norms of
one’s workplace and social position
e. explains why deaths from infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, pertussis, and measles, fell sharply after 1850
f. none of the above
Question 4
Rudolf Virchow argued that
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Select one:
a. character flaws and bad choices were the main causes of disease and early death in Upper Silesia
b. to be most effective, physicians should stick to their clinical practice of treating individuals for sickness
c. improving the health of the population of Upper Silesia required political, economic and social reforms
d. improving the health of the population of Upper Silesia required additional medical care, drugs and a better food
supply
e. the main reason for a typhus outbreak in Upper Silesia was an infestation of lice
f. only (b) and (e)
Question 5
According to Friedrich Engels, “health-harming” behaviours (such excessive alcohol consumption and family
violence) among the working classes were
Select one:
a. a demonstration of their bad character
b. evidence for why they should not be given health care
c. a result of contracting cholera and typhus
d. evidence that they could not be trusted to make good decisions
e. a product of appalling living and working conditions
f. all of the above
Week 3
Question 1
Ryan Meili uses Maxine’s story to illustrate that
Select one:
a. poverty, abuse, lack of education, discrimination and social exclusion have high costs, for individuals and their
families, and for the health care system
b. if you make the right choices, you can overcome childhood poverty, abuse and lack of education
c. health care workers shouldn’t put up with abuse and illegal behaviour from patients
d. there is little point providing treatment to those addicted to drugs
e. all of the above
Question 2
Though not discussed in the textbook, another finding of the Whitehall I study was that on average, shorter men
died earlier than taller men. What did the researchers decide was the most likely explanation for this finding?
(Remember that the men in this study were enrolled in 1967, and ranged in age from 20-64. This means that they
were children in England during the period from 1903 to 1947, which encompasses two World Wars and a period
of markedly lower standards of living than contemporary standards.)
Select one:
a. shorter stature (below genetic potential) can be a reflection of poor nutrition in childhood, and thus a marker of
low social class and poverty in childhood, which is correlated with increased morbidity and mortality in adulthood
b. it was probably a statistical error
c. shorter stature (below genetic potential) can be a reflection of poor eating habits in childhood, which correlates
with eating habits in adulthood and thus is a risk factor for early mortality
d. shorter stature is probably a reflection of genetics and may be tied to other genetic markers that predisposed the
men to an early death
e. none of the above
Question 3
The Whitehall I Study, conducted by Dr. Michael Marmot,
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