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Full set of online readings 264.docx

Political Studies
Course Code
POLS 264
Kim Richard Nossal

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The state and the nation: changing norms and the rules of sovereignty in
international relations
J. Samuel Barkin and Bruce Cronin
Sovereignty (John Ruggie): the institutionalization of public authority within
mutually exclusive jurisdictional domains
Thomas, Krasner: sovereignty a constant; not at all likely to change
Sovereignty is a social construct and its location is subject to changing
Giddens: international relations are the bases upon which nation-states exist
Sovereignty: the state and the nation
Type different types of entities:
1. States defined by territories over which authorities exercise
legitimate control
Supreme power within a defined juridical border
State sovereignty is self-justified; historical possession legitimates
continued jurisdiction
2. Nations defined by communities of sentiment that form the political
basis on which state authority rests
Developed after understanding of the state
Modern nationalism nation should be politically self-determining
and national solidarity should serve as the sole criterion in
defining the nation
Since modern nationalism, tension between state-sovereignty and
national sovereignty
o State sovereignty: stresses link between sovereign
authority and set of political institutions; stable
o National sovereignty: link between sovereign authority and
a defined population; unpredictable & destabilizing
because of minority populations
Understanding of sovereignty is redefined after war
o Gilpin: necessary component of the governance of an
international system in a set of rights that govern or
influence the interaction among states
Tension between state legitimization and nation legitimization and cannot be
fully resolved ideal of each are contradictory
State Sovereignty and the post-Napoleonic order
Challenge of Westphalian sovereignty
French tried to export revolution throughout Europe (1792-1815)
Cause of Napoleonic war = nationalism & Jacobism (French radicalism that
advocates the spread of liberty, equality, and nationhood through the use of

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Nationalism of French Revolution based on historic ties and added to nation
requirement of citizen rights
War against Napoleon had 3 aims:
1. Restore a balance of power
2. Stop spread of French radical ideas
3. Prevent liberal revolution in Europe
Favoured the state over the nation decrease in number of states in Europe,
joined smaller territories into existing states
o Peace of Paris (1814), Treaty of Vienna (1815) Congress of Vienna
territories bartered
Metternich: community interests made sovereignty less absolute
o Government can intervene if fear that will be dragged into a
revolution; prevented many wars till 1856
WWI and the triumph of the nation
Cause: old alliance politics gone out of control
International order at end of Napoleonic war different than from post-
o Empires collapsed, territories distributed, victorious states to balance
Socialism = feared ideology
Post-WWI lead to more countries
Wilson: purpose of WWI was to end all other wars and causes of war
balance of power, alliances, denial of self-determination and democracy
WWII and its aftermath
Cause: fight against fascism; linked with nationalism together formed the
desire of some people to dominate over others
Allies united over opposition to nationalism
Self-determination of peoples: people within boundaries have equal access to
government and the government does not try to control anyone outside
o Speaks against colonial empires
Nationalism: boundaries = the state should match the nation; expand
wherever nationals live, creates interstate conflict
UN charter: as long as state represents its people as individuals, other states
cannot claim to represent these people as members of its ”nation”
Legitimacy of states based on good government and not national self-
Sovereignty after the cold war
Change in the understanding of sovereignty underlying discourse in
international relations has taken root

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Think Again: Sovereignty
Stephen D. Krasner
The sovereign state is just about dead
Wrong; sovereignty remains attractive for both strong and weak states
Sovereignty provides international recognition = access to international
organizations and finance
Sovereignty means final authority
Not anymore, if ever: Hobbes and Bodin thought the words of the sovereign
was law this invited tyranny but they were concerned with maintaining
order and that’s it
Supreme power useless in practice
Sovereignty = states independent from one another
o Non-intervention: one state does not have the right to intervene with
internal affairs of another
Sovereignty control over transborder movements
o Technological change made it hard for states to control the movement
of things over borders (cocaine, Hollywood movies)
Sovereignty = political authorities can enter into international agreements
o Endorse attractive contracts
The Peace of Westphalia Produced the Modern Sovereign State
No, it came later
Westphalia - ended 30 years war against Holy Roman Empire
o Delegitimized the role of the Catholic church
o New constitution for the Holy Roman Empire
o Established rules for religious tolerance in Germany
o Undermined the power of prices to control religious affairs within
their territories
Universal Human Rights Are an Unprecedented Challenge to Sovereignty
Struggle has been going on for a long time
Some states voluntarily introduce international supervision; weak sided with
preferences of the strong
Holocaust an example of international constraints on domestic practices =
o Post WWII, human rights focus
o UN Charter endorsed human rights and non-intervention few
enforcement mechanisms and ineffective ways to report violations
Globalization Undermines State Control
States are better able to respond now than in the past
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