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POLS 264 - Buzan and Little.docx

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Queen's University
Political Studies
POLS 264
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Buzan and LittleChapter 7 The Transition from PreInternational to International Systems Tribes and Chiefdoms and locating them within a wider preinternational systemThe differences between tribal and chiefdom villages can only be fully explained by treating the village as a unit in a larger systemSedentary TribesSedentary tribes operate from a village base o Tribal villages have persisted down to present dayThe formation of villages represented a radical transformation from the system of mobile HGBs o Humans adopted a sedentary way of lifeThis seemed to arise in areas where food supplies were stable and abundant and security concerns meant they chose to live close togetherVillages contained about 50 people when they first started to arise in Near East tho By the middle of the 7 millennium this grew to 100 people o And by the end of that millennium it was 300 people in a villageThese increases in size would not have been possible without a concomitant growth in the availability in food within the immediate vicinity of the village o The village communities began to experiment with new techniques which over a very long period time moved them from being huntergatherers to fullfledged farmersThis brought about a revolution o As regions were occupied by more and more people than could be sustained by huntergatherer techniques humans found themselves ultimately dependent on agriculture for survivalTwo factors constrained the size of tribal villages o First the amount of food availableWhen a village reached its optimum size the population divided and a new village was budded off from the first one o Second there is an optimum size for any social unit organized on an egalitarian basisIf the size of the group extends beyond this limit then it is no longer possible to maintain the cohesion and internal order of the group on the basis of facetoface egalitarian relationships o Game theory demonstrates why egalitarian behaviour is the best strategy for individuals operating in small groupsEveryone knows each other in such groups
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